Chapter 9

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the Industrial Revolution

Extreme inequality of resources in the world was initiated by

Colonialism

the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period

neocolonialism

The continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries is called

world systems analysis

a historical and sociological approach to political economy with a belief in the importance of interdependency and the global system structure and connected processes.

Conflict perspective

In Immanuel Wallerstein's view, the global economic system is divided between nations that control wealth and nations from which resources are taken. This view is called

core nation

a nation that along with its multinational corporations controls and exploits noncore nations' economies.

Semiperipheral nation

a nation that has a marginal economic status would be referred to as a nation at the

periphery nation

poor and developing nations are on the

Totalitarian

According to the world systems analysis, which type of nation is relatively independent of outside control?

Dependency theory

an approach which contends that as developing countries make economic advances, they remain weak and subservient to core nations

conflict perspective

When viewing the global economic system, sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein draws on the

Interactionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective would most likely compare the relationship between a colonial nation and the colonized people to the relationship between the dominant capitalist class and the proletariat class?

Globalization

The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas is known as

Globalization
Globalization

In the weeks immediately following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the far- reaching economic repercussions began to affect businesses and workers worldwide. This phenomenon can best be explained by

multinational corporations

Commercial organizations headquartered in one country that own or control other corporations or subsidiaries throughout the world are referred to as

entire nations

The value of sales of the largest multinational corporations exceeds the total value of goods and services of many

Functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to suggest that multinational corporations help create social stability within a society by creating jobs and global enterprise?

Conflict perspective

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to suggest that multinational corporations exploit local workers to maximize profits?

have a large pool of cheap labor

Conflict theorists contend that multinational corporations are attracted to developing countries because developing countries

Millennium Project

The project sponsored by the United Nations to eliminate extreme poverty worldwide is called the

modernization

The process by which a society moves from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies is called

Wendell Bell

Which sociologist has noted that modern societies tend to be urban, literate, and industrial, with sophisticated transportation and media systems, and families in such societies are organized within the nuclear family unit rather than the extended family model?

ethnocentric bias.

Sociologists are quick to note that terms such as "modernization" and "development" contain a(an) ethnocentric

modernization

The notion that peripheral nations move from having traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed nations is known as

Functionalist perspective

Modernization theory—as a explanation on global inequality—would fall under which sociological perspective?

Criollos

Which group is at the top of the color hierarchy in Mexico?

Mestizos

The impoverished majority in Mexico are referred to as the

the borderlands

The area of common culture between Mexico and the U.S. is referred to as

Maquiladoras

Foreign companies that establish operations in Mexico yet are exempt from Mexican taxes and are not required to provide insurance or benefits for their workers are known as

Conflict Perspective

Which sociological perspective would be likely to suggest that the existence of unregulated maquiladoras in Mexico has led to the exploitation of workers with jobs that lack security, possibilities for advancement, and decent wages?

Remittances

Earnings that immigrants to the U.S. send back to their families in Mexico are referred to as

Conflict perspective

Which perspective would study how "welfare scapgoating" ignored federal handouts to individuals and families?

Corporate Welfare

The tax breaks, bailouts, direct payments, and grants that the government gives to copropoations are called:

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