Army Study Guide - First Aid (FM 4-25.11)

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What is Self Aid?

Emergency treatment one applies to oneself.

Name some items that you might use as a splint from your military equipment.

- Bayonet
- Entrenching tool
- Tent poles and stakes
- Web belt

What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg?

Tie it to the unbroken leg.

How many pressure points, which can be used to control bleeding with the fingers, thumbs, or hands, are there on the human body?

11

What is the object of first aid?

- Stop bleeding
- Overcome shock
- Relieve pain
- Prevent infection

What FM covers first aid for Soldiers?

FM 4-25.11

What is first aid?

It is the first care given to casualties before treatment by medical personnel can be made available.

What is the unique feature of type "O" blood?

Type "O" is the universal donor.

When would you not remove a casualty's clothing to expose a wound?

In a chemical environment, or if the clothing is stuck to the wound.

What Soldiers are most likely to suffer heat injuries?

Soldiers not accustomed to the heat, overweight soldiers, prior heat casualties, and soldiers already dehydrated due to alcohol use, diarrhea, or lack of water (insufficient use of)

How high should an injured limb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding?

2 to 4 inches

What are the lifesaving steps?

The ABCs of medical treatment:
- Airway (open the airway and restore breathing)
- Bleeding (stop the bleeding and protect the wound)
- Prevent shock

When applying a splint, where should the bandages be tied?

A splint should be tied with knots against a splint.

Whose first aid supplies should be used on a casualty?

The casualty's supplies.

How should the ends of an improvised pressure dressing be tied?

Tie the ends together in a non-slip knot directly over the wound. Do not tie so tightly as to have a tourniquet effect.

What is manual pressure?

Direct pressure applied by hand to wounds that continue bleeding. Pressure should be applied over the dressing for 5 to 10 minutes, by the casualty himself, if possible.

Should a casualty be given water to drink?

He should not eat or drink.

Why should you dress and bandage a wound as soon as possible?

To protect the wound and control bleeding.

What should you do to indicate that a casualty has received a tourniquet?

Mark his or her forehead with a "T" and note the time of the application.

Should you ever remove or loosen a tourniquet?

The FM says not to, but current CLS guidance allows for it under certain circumstances.

Where is a tourniquet applied?

Place the tourniquet around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk (or between the wound and the heart). Never place it directly over a wound, a fracture or a joint. For maximum effectiveness, place tourniquets above the elbow or knee.

How can you prevent athlete's foot?

Keep your feet clean, use foot powder, and change socks daily.

Name three categories of heat injury.

- Heat cramps
- Heat exhaustion
- Heat stroke

What are the signs an symptoms of heat cramps?

- Cramping in the extremities
- Abdominal cramps
- Excessive Sweating

What is the treatment for heat cramps?

- Move to a cool, shady area
- Loosen his clothing (if not in a chemical environment)
- Have him slowly drink at least one canteen of water (cool water is preferred)
- Seek medical assistance if cramps continue

What are the signs and symptoms of heat stroke?

1. Skin is red, hot and dry
2. Weakness
3. Dizziness
4. Confusion
5. Headaches
6. Seizures
7. Nausea
8. Stomach pains or cramps
9. Respiration and pulse may be rapid and weak.
10. Unconsciousness and collapse may occur suddenly.

What would the treatment be for heat stroke?

Cool casualty immediately by—
- Moving him to a cool, shady area or improvising shade if none is available.
- Loosening or removing his clothing (except in a chemical environment).
- Spraying or pouring water on him; fanning him to permit the coolant effect of evaporation.
- Massaging his extremities and skin, which increases the blood flow to those body areas, thus aiding the cooling process.
- Elevating his legs.
- Having him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water if he is conscious.
- Seek medical assistance immediately

What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?

1. Excessive sweating, with pale, moist, cool skin
2. Headache
3. Weakness
4. Dizziness
5. Loss of appetite
6. Cramping
7. Nausea, with or without vomiting
8. Urge to defecate
9. Chills (goosebumps)
10. Rapid breathing
11. Tingling of hands and feet
12. Confusion

What would the treatment be for heat exhaustion?

1. Move the casualty to a cool, shady area
2. Loosen or remove his clothing and boots (unless in a chemical environment)
3. Pour water on him and fan him.
4. Have him slowly drink at least one canteen of water.
5. Elevate his legs.
6. If possible, the casualty should not participate in strenuous activity for the remainder of the day.
7. Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone, or medical assistance arrives.

If a casualty was suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or sever head trauma, which method would you use for opening the airway?

The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases this can be done without extending the neck.

What are two basic types of fractures?

- Open (compound)
- Closed (simple)

What are the signs of an open fracture?

- Bleeding
- Bone sticking through skin
- Check for pulse

What are some signs of a closed fracture?

- Swelling
- Dislocation
- Deformity
- Unusual body position
- Check for pulse

With an open fracture, what should you do first?

Stop the bleeding.

What is the proven principal for splinting fractures?

"Splint them where they lie."

How tightly should a tourniquet be applied?

Tight enough to make the bright red bleeding stop.

What are the three types of bleeding?

- Arterial: Bright red blood that spurts with each heart beat
- Venous: Dark red blood that flows in a steady stream
- Capillary: Blood that oozes from the wound

Name 4 common points for checking a pulse.

1. Carotid
2. Radial
3. Femoral
4. Brachial

What are some signs and symptoms of shock?

- Clammy skin
- Restlessness and nervousness
- Thirst
- Loss of blood
- Confusion
- Tachypnea
- Nausea or vomiting
- Blotched or bluish skin (esp around lips)
- Excessive perspiration
- Unconsciousness

What is the treatment for shock?

PELCRN
- Position the casualty on his back
- Elevate the legs
- Loosen clothing, belt and boots
- Climatize (prevent too hot or too cold)
- Reassure
- Notify medical personnel

What is a heat injury?

Dehydration from sweating in hot weather.

What is the greatest preventive measure for disease?

Cleanliness

How do you stop bleeding?

- Apply a field dressing
- Manual pressure
- Elevate the limb
- Apply a pressure dressing
- Digital pressure
- Apply a tourniquet

What is CPR?

Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation. It is used to restore a heartbeat.

When can measures to restore breathing be stopped?

- When the casualty begins to breathe on his own
- When a doctor tells you to stop
- When you can not physically continue
- When others relieve you

What is AIDS?

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the end stage of the HIV infection. At this point, the virus has attacked and weakened a person's immune system.

Name two types of rescue breathing.

- Mouth-to-mouth
- Mouth-to-nose

When should the casualty no be placed in the shock position?

When the casualty has:
- A head injury
- An abdominal wound
- A unsplinted, fractured leg

How long is direct, manual pressure applied to control bleeding?

5 to 10 mintutes

What should you do prior to leaving an unconscious casualty?

Turn their head to prevent them from choking on vomit.

When should you apply a tourniquet?

As a last resort, when all other attempts to control bleeding have failed, or, if a limb has been severed off.

What does the acronym COLD stand for>

Clean - Keep it CLEAN
Overheating - Avoid OVERHEATING
Loose - Wear clothes LOOSE and in LAYERS
Dry - Keep it DRY

What are the steps to evaluate a casualty?

Check for:
- Responsiveness
- Breathing
- Pulse
- Bleeding
- Shock
- Fractures
- Burns
- Head injures

What is the first indication of frostbite?

Skin becomes numb and white particles/patches form on it.

How do you treat frostbite?

- Remove clothing from affected area
- Warm with body heat
- Dress the area
- Seek medical attention

When should an airtight dressing be applied to a sucking chest wound?

When the casualty breathes out.

How do you position a casualty with an open abdominal wound?

On his back with his knees up to relieve abdominal pressure.

What do you do with exposed abdominal organs?

Wrap them in clean, dry material and place them on top of the abdomen. Never try to put them back in.

How do you check the carotid pulse?

Feel for a pulse on the side of the casualty's neck by placing two fingers on the side of the Adam's Apple.

What are the two man support carries?

- Two-Man Support Carry
- Two-Man Arms Carry
- Two-Man Fore-and Aft-Carry
- Four-Hand Seat Carry
- Two-Hand Seat Carry

What are the one-man support carries?

- Fireman's carry
- Supporting carry
- Arms Carry
- Saddleback carry
- Pack-strap carry
- Pistol belt carry
- Pistol belt drag
- Neck drag
- LBE Carry Using Bearers LBE
- LBE Carry UsingCasualty's LBE
- Cradle Drop Drag

Should you put any medication or cream on a burn?

No

Name the four types of burns.

1. Thermal
2. Electrical
3. Chemical
4. Laser

What is the primary objective in the treatment of burns?

Lessen or prevent shock and infection.

What are the three categories used in medical evacuation?

1. Urgent - within 2 hours
2. Priority - within 4 hours
3. Routine - within 24 hours

What is the first aid procedure for a white phosphorous casualty?

Smother the flame by submerging the affected area in water or pack with mud, then remove the particles by brushing or picking them out.

What is the first step in the first aid of a burn victim?

Remove the casualty from the source of the burn.

What are the 2 prescribed methods for opening an airway?

1. The jaw thrust
2. Head tilt/chin lift methods

What is the major cause of tooth decay and gum disease?

Dental plaque

What are the 9 mild symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?

1. Unexplained runny nose
2. Unexplained headache
3. Sudden drooling
4. Difficulty seeing (dimness of vision and miosis)
5. Tightness in the chest or difficulty in breathing
6. Localized sweating and muscular twitching in the area of contaminated skin
7. Stomach cramps
8. Nausea
9. Tachycardia (>100 BPM) followed by bradycardia (<60 BPM)

What are the 11 severe symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?

1. Strange or confused behavior.
2. Wheezing, dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), and coughing.
3. Severely pinpointed pupils.
4. Red eyes with tearing.
5. Vomiting.
6. Severe muscular twitching and general weakness.
7. Involuntary urination and defecation.
8. Convulsions.
9. Unconsciousness.
10. Respiratory failure.
11. Bradycardia.

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