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Final Exam Flashcards

The first purpose of the applied arts is to

serve some useful function

Ludwig Hohlwein's poster is an example of:

propaganda

A work of art can be judged from very different points of view.

True

Piet Mondrian's Composition (B) En Bleu, Jaune, et Blanc (Composition in Blue, Yellow, and White) is an example of

nonobjective, or nonrepresentational, painting

When someone pays an artist to create a work of art it is called

patronage

Censorship of art was never an issue until the twentieth century.

False

Vera Mukhina's Machine Tractor Driver and Collective Farm Girl is an example of

sociopolitical content

The meaning found in art, including the subject-matter and the emotions, ideas and symbols is called

content

Wanting to stop art from being shown because of moral beliefs is called

censorship

For Paul Klee, the act of artistic creation seemed to be a way of approaching

the unseen

Three-dimensional artworks have

height, width, and depth

In Western society, the acceptance of art by women and artists of color has been subject to racial and gender stereotyping.

True

Maya Ying Lin said she wanted her Vietnam Veterans' Memorial to be

honest about the reality of war

A naive artist is someone who has never been formally trained in the techniques of art

True

There are no absolute guidelines for judging __________ in art

quality

The work, Ancestors of the Passage: A Healing Journey through the Middle Passage by __________ treats the subject of slavery and its effects on women

Imna Arroyo

Richard Diebenkorn's Ocean Park paintings are examples of:

nonobjective paintings

In the formalist approach the chief emphasis to judging quality in art is on _____.

how the artist manipulates elements of design

Idealization in art is a form of _____.

realism

Some artists cannot easily explain why they create art. For them, it is _____.

an inner calling

Michael Heizer's City Complex I, which has an enduring, monumental effect, is an example of a __________ sculpture.

static

Edward Steichen's photograph Rodin: The Thinker is a good example of the use of:

value and contrast

Overlapping is a way of suggesting three-dimensional space.

True

Atmospheric perspective is a way to

show deep space by making distant things hazy

Sculptures that project out from a two-dimensional ground are called

reliefs

The sculptor Henry Moore was interested in the interplay between __________.

positive form and negative space

Complementary colors are those that are

opposite each other on the color wheel

The Futurists were most interested in capturing a single moment in time in a static image.

False

Alexander Calder's mobiles are an example of:

kinetic sculpture

Real-world objects taken from trash heaps and used in art are called

found objects

The shapes in Matisse's painting The Snail are called hard-edged because __________.

their boundaries are clearly distinguished

Three-dimensional art in the full round is designed to be seen

from all sides

Anish Kapoor's Cloud Gate employs reflected light to capture the viewer's attention.

True

The shapes in Helen Frankenthaler's painting Mauve District are called hard-edged because:

their boundaries are clearly distinguished

Linear perspective is a mathematical system used to show

recession in space

A mark or area that is significantly longer than it is wide may be perceived as _____.

a line

Alexander Calder's Cow uses _________ lines to create a sense of three-dimensionality and to emphasize the overall form of the image.

contour

When a visual effect is so realistic it fools our perception it is called

trompe l'oeil

In art the term "scale" refers to

relative size

The phrase point of view is used in art to indicate where the viewer is standing in relation to the figures in the artwork

True

Variety is expressed through transitions which are defined as rapid changes from one state to another.

False

In the Balega mask, contrast is achieved primarily through:

texture

Rhythm in art is created by patterns that are set up through

repetition and variety

_____ refers to the principle called "economy of means."

paring away extraneous details

Balance is a principle of design based on the _____.

visual weight one assigns to parts of a work

Repetition can be used in decorative works to create an all-over

pattern

The ___________ was (were) critical to Frank Gehry in designing the Guggenheim Bilbao Museum.

environmental setting

The golden rectangle is a way of establishing the:

ideal proportion of a space

The ceremonial blanket from the Haida culture is an example of symmetry because _________.

the left side and the right side are identical

Instead of using mathematical devices to unify the image in The Boating Party, Pierre-Auguste Renoir employed __________.

color and the objects in the scene to link groups of people

In Essence Mulberry, Helen Frankenthaler's use of gray paint the same color as the ground creates a __________.

transition

The use of multiple triangles by Lucy Pettway in her artwork Birds in the Air exemplifies the organizing principle of __________.

repetition

Rhythm in art can be compared with rhythm in music.

True

The painter Wassily Kandinsky believed that coherence and harmony in a painting could be achieved by using only _________.

colors and shapes, with no references to the physical world

The implied triangle is a common formula for unifying compositional lines because it is _____.

a highly stable shape

The use of multiple similar torsos by Magdalena Abakanowicz in her piece Backs is an example of the organizing principle of:

repetition

Jose Orozco used repetition in his painting Zapatistas (fig. 3-4) to give the sense of __________.

beats in a single movement
a unified whole
a mass of figures, moving forward

In Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, Christ is the most important figure, and his place in the composition is as the:

focal point

Rhythm can be achieved by using

shape of form
color
line

Because __________ there is visual tension created in Nancy Graves' work Trace.

it is intentionally unbalanced

Pen and ink is essentially a __________ medium.

line

Drawing pens are sometimes made of bird feathers which are called quills.

True

Of the tools for drawing that are classified as "dry" the most commonly used is

graphite pencil

The word used to refer to the material with which the artist works is _____.

medium

The subtle value gradations Leonardo da Vinci created with chalk in "The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and John the Baptist" are called:

sfumato

Leonardo da Vinci's "The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and John the Baptist" is a full-sized chalk drawing done as a model for a painting. This work is, thus, called a:

cartoon

Pastel, a kind of chalky stick, will only stay on the paper if

is is treated with a fixture

Ink that is thinned with water or spirit and brushed on to suggest tone is called a

wash

The word "pastel" is usually associated with _______ tones.

pale

In his drawing "Fish Skeletons" Hyman Bloom reverses the usual technique for pen and ink by:

using white ink on dark paper

Paper, the most frequently used drawing surface, has been readily available since ancient Egypt.

False

Unlike the other dry media discussed in this chapter, silverpoint _____.

requires that the paper be prepared with pigment or glue

Georges Seurat was able to get a range of values from conte crayon by __________.

working on textured paper

There are special crayons made of grease for use in lithographic printing.

True

Corot's Civita Castellana illustrates how the use of graphite pencils __________.

- can result in many value gradations
- are good for drawing small precise lines like hatching
- can create many variations of grays and blacks

Mosaic is (are) __________ whose subtle effects can be viewed in The Battle of Issus.

an ancient technique of embedding small tiles, called tesserae, into cement

Typical of __________ is the medium's liquid transparent airiness as seen in Joseph Mallord William Turner's.

watercolor

Some nonobjective painters of the twentieth century worked on unsized canvas

so that the paint would be absorbed right into the canvas

Collage was introduced as an art form in the early twentieth century.

True

Vermeer's painting Girl with a Pearl Earring is a good example of the use of:

oil

The final layer of plaster, or _____, is applied over the underlying cartoon in sections small enough to be painted on that day while the plaster is still damp.

intonaco

Of painting media, the only one that does not dry quickly is:

oil

In early tempera paintings that used gold leaf, the gold was applied

over a surface of red gilder's clay, then burnished

Correggio's painting Danae seems to glow because the artist used ____________: layers of pigment suspended in a transparent medium.

glazes

According to the curator at the Louvre, the Mona Lisa, an oil painting, has not been cleaned because:

people are so used to seeing it dirty, it would upset them if it changed

In general, paint is made by suspending _____________ in a liquid medium and adding a binder.

pigment

Drawing and painting are two separate things, with no similarities between them.

False

Tibetan sand paintings are in the form of the __________ that can symbolize the divine nature of the world, the process by which the mind becomes enlightened, and the way that the spiritually adept balance the body's energies and the mind's light.

mandala

In painting, the word for the surface on which the painting is created is the ________.

support

In theory, acrylic paints are permanent and will never deteriorate.

True

The art of designing letter forms is called

typography

The packaging designed by Mihoko Hachiuma for Soleil foods __________.

gives an elegant handmade look

Typesetting, or the setting up of the type for printing a page, is now done by _____.

computerized processes

Graphic designers are people who

- design two-dimensional images for commercial purposes
- convey information to the public
- use words and imagery together

The Graphic Design guru Milton Glaser once said, "I like to design something for institutions that did no harm and for personalities that I feel comfortable with."

True

According to Peter Good, graphic designers should _____.

be constantly open to new ways of seeing things

A good graphic design will _____.

- consider the taste and interests of the public
- elicit a certain feeling toward a product
- lure the public into wanting to know more

Paul Rand, who designed the IBM logo, believed that corporate logos should _____.

consist of simple, universal, and timeless shapes

In 1976, Peter Good designed the "I Love New York" slogan of a red heart between black, block letters that was designed to promote tourism to the city.

False

In 1525, Albrecht Durer published an influential book about _____.

using geometry for designing letters

Toulouse-Lautrec used color lithography for his poster in order to create a one-of-a-kind portrait of his client.

False

The image by Alberto Seveso used for the cover of a magazine about computer arts includes elements suggesting the ___________, and are meant to evoke the mind of a young computer designer at work.

unraveled strands of computer circuitry

Although graphic design is for commercial purposes, some designs, like Toulouse-Lautrec's poster, have been treated like __________.

fine art

The typeface serif:

- gives elegant, calligraphic flourishes
- leads our eye through a word
- was originally based on the Roman alphabet

Graphic designers usually work with other people, such as marketing specialists and clients

True

Installations use sound, projection, and objects to create a virtual environment that evokes sensations in its viewers.

True

One of the very earliest popular uses of photography was _____.

for portraits whose aim was capturing a perfect likeness

The camera can capture only as much as the human eye can perceive.

False

Dorothea Lange's photograph Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, is an example of _____________ photography.

documentary

The word photography is Greek for _____.

"writing with light"

In the 1920s __________ formed the "straight photography" movement in which objects were recorded in sharp focus with attention given to their details.

Edward Weston

The __________ offers an example of how, before the advent of color photography, patrons had themselves photographed before a false backdrop with details hand painted.

Portrait of a Landowner

The purpose of Dante Gabriel Rossetti's photograph of Jane Morris was to

serve as a study for a drawing

One problem with the daguerreotype is _____.

the lengthy time needed for exposures

From the time of the Renaissance, some artists used a camera obscura, which was a _____.

dark room or box that used light to show images on a surface

For the past few decades videos by fine artists have been included in the collections of great museums.

True

Digital imaging can build up lushly detailed works; simultaneously, it can delete details so that the focus falls upon a single object.

True

The computer-generated images used in realistic movies to show things like alien invasions, explosions, or tornadoes are called

special effects

A big improvement in photography, based on Fox Talbot's work, was ______.

the development of a means of creating multiple copies of an image

The filmmaker Satyajit Ray is well known for _____.

films that capture the lives of ordinary people

Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty is an example of

earthworks

Zoe Leonard creates sculptural installations, such as Strange Fruit (for David) from __________ materials.

ephemeral

Artwork made of impermanent found objects is referred to as _____.

ephemeral

Carving is a ____________ process.

subtractive

Carvings have ___________ to minimize the labor involved in removing excess material.

compact contours

The Greeks developed the ____________ process of casting, which is still used.

lost-wax

In casting, a mold is used into which

molten material is poured

The bronze sculpture of Degas' Horse Galloping on Right Foot shows the details of the original

modeling in wax

In fifteenth-century Benin sculptors were supported by _____.

patronage of the king

Modeling and carving mean the same thing.

False

Clay is a sculpture material that was commonly used in ancient civilizations.

True

The ability of sculptural material to resist forces of pressure, like gravity, is called its

tensile strength

Artists use found objects to create artwork by a process called

assembling

Michelangelo believed that one piece of marble was the same as another.

False

When some materials for sculptures cannot support their own weight, a sculptor will use __________________ for support.

an armature

A gouge, a mallet, and a scraper are tools used for _____.

carving wood

A small clay or plaster model for a larger sculpture is called a

maquette

For his monumental sculptures, such as the Torqued Ellipses, Richard Serra uses computer modeling to work out __________.

basic coordinates, balance, layout and shape

This sculpture by Louise Nevelson, called Black Wall is made of various pieces of wood. This sculpture is called a(n):

assemblage

Sculpture made from found objects is sometimes called __________ sculpture.

junk

An ancient method for working with clay is called

wheel-throwing

The practice of _____ seems to have begun with the nomads of Central Asia.

weaving rugs for covering their tents and wrapping their possessions

The most ductile and malleable metal is

gold

Wood cannot be used for extremely ornate forms.

False

Louis Tiffany and John La Farge developed

the opalescent form of stained glass

Susye Billy, a basket weaver of the native Pomo people in California, has said natural materials for her craft are difficult to obtain because _____.

land developers have changed the natural environment

Iron and steel are the least malleable metals.

True

Dale Chihuly is a major artist in the field of

art glass

One of the most common ways of making glass vessels is

using a blowpipe

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