Chapter 10: Gender Stratification

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gender

the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male

gender stratification

the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women

matriarchy

a form of social organization in which females dominate males

patriarchy

a form of social organization in which males dominate females

sexism

the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other

gender roles (sex roles)

attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex

minority

any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates

intersection theory

analysis of the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage

sexual harassment

comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome

feminism

support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism

Gender

________ refers to the meaning a culture attaches to being female or male.

True

T/F Evidence that gender is rooted in culture includes global comparisions by Margaret Mead and others showing how societies define what is feminine and masculine in various ways.

True

T/F Gender is not only about difference: Because societies give more power and other resources to men than to women, gender is an important dimension of social stratification.

Sexism

__________ is built into the operation of social institutions.

True

T/F Although some degree of patriarchy is found almost everywhere, it varies throughout history and from society to society.

gender identity, gender roles

Through the socialization process, gender becomes part of our personalities (_________) and our actions (________).

True

T/F All the major agents of socialization- family, peer groups, schools, and the mass media- reinforce cultural definitions of what is feminine and masculine.

True

T/F Gender stratification shapes the workplace.

False (42%)

T/F A majority of women are now in the paid labor force, but 89% hold clerical or service jobs.

False (78%)

Comparing full-time U.S. workers, women earn 25% as much as men.

True

T/F Gender difference in earnings results from diffeence in jobs, differences in family responsibilities, and discrimination.

True

T/F Gender stratification shapes family life.

True

T/F Gender stratification shapes education.

False (Does)

T/F Gender statification does not shape politics.

True

T/F Until a century ago, almost no women held elected office in the United States.

False (increased)

T/F In recent decades, the number of women in politics has decreased significantly.

True

T/F The vast majority of elected officials, especially at the national level, are men.

False (15%)

T/F Women make up only about 5% of U.S. military personnel.

Intersection Theory

_________ ___________ investigates the intersection of race, class, and gender, factors that combine to cause special disadvantages to some categories of people.

False (greater)(less)

T/F Women of color encounter less social disadvantages than white women and earn much more than white men.

True

T/F Because all women have a distinctive social identity and are disadvantaged, they are a minority, although most white women do not think of themselves this way.

True

T/F Violence against women and men is a widespread problem that is linked to how a society defines gender.

Sexual harassment

______ _________ , which mostly victimizes women because our culture encourages men to be assertive and to see women in sexual terms.

Pornography

___________, which portrays women as sexual objects. Many see this as a moral issue; because it dehumanizes women, it is also a power issue.

Structural-functional approach

______ ________ _______ suggests that in preindustrail societies, distinctive roles for males and females reflect biological differences between the sexes.

Talcott Parsons

________ ________ described gender differences in terms of complementary roles that promote the social integration of families and society as a whole.

Social-conflict approach

________ _______ _______ suggests that gender is an important dimension of social inequality and social conflict.

Social-conflict approach

_________ _________ _______ suggests that gender inequality benefits men and disadvantages women.

Feminism

__________ endorses the social equality of women and men and opposes patriarchy and sexism.

Feminism

________ seeks to eliminate violenceagainst women.

Feminism

__________ advocates giving women control over their reproduction.

Liberal feminism, socialist feminism, and radical feminism.

There are three types of feminism:

Liberal feminism

_________ ________ seeks equal opportunity for both sexes within the existing society.

Socialist feminism

_________ ________ claims that gender equality will come about by replacing capitalism with socialism.

Radical feminism

________ ________ seeks to eliminate the concept of gender itself and to create an egalitarian and gender-free society.

True

T/F Today, only 20% of U.S. adults say they oppose feminism and most of the opposition is directed toward socialist and radical feminism.

True

T/F Support for liberal feminism is widespread.

D. All of the above are correct

Gender is not just a matter of difference but also a matter of: A. power
B. wealth
C. prestige
D. All of the above are correct

C. what is feminine in one society may be masculine in another.

The anthropologist Margaret Mead studied gender in three societies in New Guinea and found that
A. all societies define femininity in much the same way.
B. all societies define masculinity in much the same way.
C. what is feminine in one society may be masculine in another.
D. the meaning of gender is changing everywhere toward greater equality.

D. All of the above are correct

For all of us raised in U.S. society, gender shapes our
A. feelings
B. thoughts
C. actions
D. All of the above are correct

A. women to believe that their personal importance depends on their looks.

There is a "beauty myth" in U.S. society that encourages
A. women to believe that their personal importance depends on their looks
B. beautiful women to think they do not need men
C.men to improve their physical appearance in order to attract women.
D. women to think the are as physically attractive as today's men.

B. 59 percent

In the United States, what share of women work for income?
A. 79 percent
B. 59 percent
C. 39 percent
D. 19 percent

C. women are still concentrated in several types of jobs

In the U.S. labor force,
A. men and women have the same kinds of jobs
B. men and women earn the same pay.
C. women are still concentrated in several types of jobs
D. a majority of working women hold "pink-collar" jobs.

D. All of the above are correct

For which of the following categories of people in the United States is it true that women do more housework than men?
A. people who work for income
B. people who are married
C. people who have children
D. All of the above are correct

A. 78 cents

In the United States, women in the labor force working full-time earn how much for every dollar earned by men working full-time?
A. 78 cents
B. 86 cents
C. 97 cents
D. 99 cents

B. 16 percent

Before the 2008 elections, women held about what percentage of seats in congress?
A. 6 pecent
B. 16 percent
C. 36 percent
D. 56 percent

B. liberal feminism

Which type of feminism accepts U.S. society as it is but wants to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?
A. socialist feminism
B. liberal feminism
C. radical feminism
D. All of the above are correct.

hierarchy

Gender involves __________, placing men and women in different positions in terms of power, wealth, and other resources.

True

T/F Gender affects the opporrtunities and constraints we face throughout our lives.

Gender

__________ is a dimension of social organization, shaping how we interact with others and even how we think about ourselves.

True

T/F Many people think there is something "natural" about gender distinctions because biology does make one sex different from the other.

True

T/F In 1848, women were denied the vote because many people assumed that women did not have enough intelligence or interest in politics.

cultural patterns

Such attitudes about women voting (1848) had nothing to do with biology; they reflected the _________ _________ of that time and place.

True

T/F Most differences between men and women turn out to be socially created.

75.2, 80.4

Women out perform men in the ultimate game of life itself: Life expectancy for men is _____ years, and women can expect to live ________ years.

matriarchy

"rule by mothers"

patriarchy

"rule by fathers"

sexism

The justification for patriarchy is __________.

Institutional sexism

______ _______is found throughout the economy, with women highly concentrated in low-paying jobs.

True

T/F Sexism limits the talents and the ambitions of the half of the human population who are women.

D. All of the above

Masculinity in our culture encourages men to engage in many high-risk behaviors:
A. using tobacco and alcohol
B. playing dangerous sports
C. driving recklessly
D. All the above are high risk behaviors

True

T/F Masculinity is linked not only to accidents but also to suicide, violence, and stress-related diseases.

Type A personality

marked by chronic impatience, driving ambition, competitiveness, and free-floating hostility- is one cause of heart disease and an almost perfect match with the behavior our culture considers masculine.

True

T/F As men seek control over others, they lose opportunities for intimacy and trust.

True

T/F Most sociologists believe that gender is socially constructed and can be changed.

True

T/F From birth until death, gender shapes human feelings, thoughts, and actions.

True

T/F Gender shapes our interests and beliefs about our own abilities, guiding areas of study and, eventually, career choices.

False (majority)

T/F Women are still a minority of the students on college campuses across the U.S.

decline in farming, growth of cities, shrinking family size, and rising divorce rates, need for dual-income, delaying children, more women in college, more women want to be independent.

Name some of the factors that have contributed to change in the U.S. labor force:

Administrative support work, service work

The U.S. Department of Labor (2008) reports a high concentration of women in two types of jobs:

secretaries, office workers, receptionist or information clerk

give examples of administrative support work:

dental hygienist, dental assistant, child care worker, pre-k or kindergarten teacher

give examples of service work:

True

T/F Gender stratification in everyday life is easy to see.

"men's work"

By defining some kinds of work as _______ ______, society defines women as less competent than men.

True

T/F In the coporate world, the higher in the company we look, the fewer women we find.

Structural-functional approach

From this point of view, gender serves as a means to organize social life.

Social-conflict approach

From this point of view, gender involves differences not just in behavior but in power as well.

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