Chapter 7 Lower Limb Bontrager - Test B

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What is another term for the intercondyloid eminence?

intercondylar tubercles

What is the name of the deep depression found on the posterior aspect of the distal femur?

intercondylar fossa

A line drawn across the most distal aspect of the medial and lateral femoral condyles would be ______from being at a right angle to the long axis of the femur.

5-7 degrees

The upper, or superior portion of the patella is called the

base

Which 2 ligaments of the knee joint help stabilize the knee from the anterior and posterior perspective?

cruciates

Which structures serve as shock absorbers within the knee joint?

menisci

What condition may cause the tibial tuberosity to be pulled away from the tibial shaft?

Osgood-Schlatter disease

What condition may produce the radiographic appearance of a destructive lesion w/ irregular periosteal reaction?

Osteogenic sarcoma

What is the common term for chondromalacia patella?

Runner's knee

Which imaginary plane should be placed parallel to the IR for an AP projection of the knee?

interepicondylar

Which joint space should be open or almost open for a well positioned AP oblique knee projection w/ medial rotation?

proximal tibiofibular

True/False: A 5-7 degree cephalad angle of the central ray for a lateral projection of the knee helps superimpose the distal borders of the medial & lateral condyles of the femur.

True

What is the major disadvantage of the Settegast method?

requires overflexion of knee

SITUATION: A projection is performed for the patellofemoral joint w/ the patient supine and the knee flexed 40. The CR is angled 30 caudad from horizontal. The cassette is resting on the lower legs supported by a special device. Which method is being described?

Merchant Bilateral

SITUATION: A radiograph of the knee reveals the joint spaces are not equally open & the proximal fibula is superimposed over the tibia. What positioning error lead to this?

lateral rotation of lower limb

SITUATION: A bilateral patellofemoral joint space study is ordered. The patient is parapelgic. What projection is best suited?

Superoinferior (sitting) tangential

The ____ is the weight bearing bone of the lower leg.

tibia

What is the large prominence located on the midanterior surface of the proximal tibia that serves as a distal attachment for the patellar tendon?

tibial tuberosity

What is the small prominence located on the posterolateral aspect of the medial condyle of the femur that is a landmark to determine possible rotation of lateral knee?

adductor tuberlce

A small triangular depression located on the tibia that helps form the distal tibiofibular joint is called

fibular notch

The articular facets of the proximal tibia are also referred to as the

tibial plateau

The articular facets of the tibial plateau slope ___* posteriorly

10-20

The most proximal aspect of the fibula is the

apex or styloid process

The extreme distal end of the fibula forms the

lateral malleolus

What are 2 other names for the patellar surface of the femur?

intercondylar sulcus, trochlear groove

What is the name of the depression located on the posterior aspect of the distal femur?

intercondylar fossa or notch

Why is the CR angled 5-7* cephalad for a lateral knee?

medial condyle lower than lateral condyle causing the 2 condyles to be superimposed when femur is parallel to IR

The slightly raised area located on the posterolateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle is the

adductor tubercle

The general region of the posterior knee is called the

popliteal region

True/False: Flexion of 20* of the knee forces the patella firmly against the patellar surface of the femur.

False

True/False: The patella acts like a pivot to increase the leverage of a large muscle found in the anterior thigh.

True

True/False: The posterior surface of the patella is normally rough.

False

Which large muscle does the patella serve as a pivot to increase the leverage?

quadriceps femoris muscle

Which joint is between the patella and distal femur?

patellofemoral

Which joint is between the two condyles of the femur and tibia?

femorotibial

The crescent shaped fibrocartilage disks that act as shock absorbers in the knee joint are called

medial & lateral menisci

What are the two bursae found in the knee joint?

suprapatellar & ifrapatellar bursa

Tibial plafond, medial malleolus, articular facets, fibular notch, intercondyloid eminence

Tibia

Knee joint (femorotibial) is classified as what type of mobility?

Bicondylar

Distal tibiofibular is classified as what type of mobility?

Amphiarthrodial (syndesmosis type)

What is the basic positioning for tibia & fibula?

AP & lateral

To include both joints for a lateral projection of tibia & fibula, the tech can place IR ____ to part.

diagonally

What is the CR for AP of knee for patient w/ thighs & buttocks GREATER than 24cm?

3-5* cephalad

Where is CR for AP and oblique of knee?

1/2in distal to apex of patella

What projection of knee best demonstrates the proximal tibiofibular joint & the proximal fibula w/ no superimposition?

AP oblique 45* medial rotation

For the AP oblique of the knee, the ____ rotation best shows the lateral condyle of the tibia & the head/neck of the fibula.

medial

What is CR for lateral knee for tall, slender male w/ narrow pelvis?

5* cephalad

How much flexion for lateral projection of knee?

20-30*

Which positioning error is present if the DISTAL borders of the femoral condyles are not superimposed on a lateral knee?

improper angle of CR

Which positioning error is present if the POSTERIOR portions of the femoral condyles are not superimposed on a lateral knee?

overrotation or underrotation of knee

AP knee stress projections are performed to demonstrate:

medial or collateral ligament damage

Which special projection of knee best demonstrates the intercondylar fossa?

Holmblad

What type of CR angulation & how much flexion is required for PA axial weight-bearing projection (Rosenberg)?

10, 45

What type of CR angulation for the PA axial (Holmblad)?

None, CR perpindicular to IR

How much flexion for a lateral projection of patella?

5-10*

What type of CR angle for the superoinferior sitting tangential method of patella?

None

What special projection of knee must be done erect?

Rosenburg

For a tangential projection of the femoropatellar joint, how much flexion should be on the knee?

90* flexion

The knee joint is highly dependent on two important pairs of major ligaments for stability called:

anterior/posterior cruciate (ACL, PCL) & lateral/medial collateral (LCL, MCL) ligaments

Which two ligaments prevent adduction & abduction movements of the knee?

collateral

A saclike structure that is filled w/ a lubricating-type synovial fluid that the knee joint is enclosed in is called _____ or _____.

articular capsule, bursa

The femoral shaft is at an angle of ____ degrees for an average adult and the range is __-__degrees.

10; 5-15

The femoral shaft angle is ____ on a short person and ___ on a tall person.

greater, less

The patella articulates with the _____.

femur

The tibial spine (eminence) is not seen on _____ or ____.

child; total knee

What is the CR for AP of knee for patient w/ thighs & buttocks LESS than 19cm?

3-5* caudad

What is the CR for AP of knee for patient w/ thighs & buttocks BETWEEN 19-24cm?

0*

Which projection of the knee shows most superimposition of anatomy?

AP oblique 45* lateral rotation

What is the CR angle for a lateral knee on a short patient w/ a wide pelvis?

7-10* cephalad

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