Social Psychology 8-10

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People are more likely to exhibit social loafing if

rewards are divided equally regardless of individual effort.

A review of studies on deindividuation showed that physical anonymity makes one _______ to cues presented in a situation, whether negative or positive.

more responsive

Triplett conducted one of social psychology's first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a _______ relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel and the presence of other children.

positive

Students who join extracurricular groups on campus tend to find their attitudes regarding the groups' purpose increase if they stay in the group. This is an example of

group polarization.

When giving a speech in class, you spend most of the first five minutes wondering what your audience is thinking of you. This is a good example of _____ instead of thinking about what you are saying.

driven by distraction

The larger the crowd, the _______ a person tends to be _______.

more; aroused

The best way to improve individual performance by a group is to

evaluate each person individually.

Your co-worker tells you that she has both a pet snake and a pet dog at home. You are most likely to describe her to new office employees as a

snake owner.

The tendency for people to believe that individuals get what they deserve and deserve what they get is called the _______ phenomenon.

just-world

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

Categorization can provide useful information about people with minimum effort.

Mr. Watson's belief that Blacks are lazy is an example of _______. His refusal to rent an apartment to a Black family is an example of _______.

a stereotype; discrimination

More lynching of Blacks took place in the old South during years when cotton prices were low, suggesting that prejudice is partly explained by

displaced aggression.

Which statement is FALSE?

Racial stereotypes are stronger than gender stereotypes.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

The larger and more powerful the group, the less we attend to them and the more we stereotype.

Positive, constructive, helpful social behavior is what psychologists refer to as

prosocial behavior

A person kicking the wall after losing a game of poker is an example of

displacement

Which one of the following is NOT one of the reasons that lead Buss and Shackelford (1997) to conclude that aggression was adaptive for our distant ancestors?

It encouraged the rise of the nations.

Jason instigates more and more fights with younger children on the school playground because it gains him the attention and respect of his friends. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is

A learned response

Of the following, which is the best example of instrumental aggression?

A group of mercenaries, hired to kill the dictator of a small country, arrange to poison him.

According to Gentile and Anderson (2003), "The scientific debate over whether media violence has an effect _______."

is basically over

When being observed increases evaluation concerns, _______ occurs; when being lost in a crowd decreases evaluation concerns, _______ occurs.

social facilitation; social loafing

According to the text, physical anonymity _______ results in antisocial behavior.

sometimes

Sam has a tendency to contribute little effort to group assignments, as he thinks others will be sure to pick up the slack in an effort to get a good grade. This is an example of

Social Loafing

Which one of the following is NOT an explanation for group polarization?

social facilitation

Which is NOT one of the three ways identified by Brown and Paulus (2002) to enhance group brainstorming?

Have the individuals then the group brainstorm.

A looting mob is a good example of

deindividuation.

Between classes, you notice how smokers congregate outside the doors of the building. When interacting with one another, they seem to behave as if they identify as quite different from the non-smokers who happen to be outside the door. What term would best describe the group of smokers?

a ingroup

Elena's boss told her that she is being let go due to company downsizing. Later that day when gets home, she is critical of her girlfriend's choice of restaurant for dinner. What term best describes Elena's behavior?

displaced aggression

The realistic group conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises

when groups compete for scarce resources

_______ are exceptions to the group; _______ are acknowledged as part of the overall group.

Subtypes; subgroups

Assuming that sick people are responsible for their illnesses is an example of the _______ phenomenon.

just-world

Who is most likely to support a policy, such as tax cuts for the wealthy, that maintains hierarchies?

a person high on social-dominence

The perception that one is less well off than others is referred to as

relative deprivation

Berkowitz and LePage (1967) found that frustrated men delivered more shocks when

guns happened to be in the room

The frustration-aggression theory is designed to explain

hostile aggression

Physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm is known as

aggression

According to the text, one reason that TV viewing affects behavior is that it

evokes imitation

Research indicates that minorities are most influential when they

unswervingly stick to their position.

Gina is a highly effective leader who excels in delegating authority, motivating those under her authority, and providing support. Gina excels in

social leadership

Which one of the following is NOT an explanation for group polarization?

social facilitation

Myers and Bishop (1970) organized groups of prejudiced and nonprejudiced high school students and asked them to respond to issues involving racial attitudes, both before and after group discussion. Results showed that after within-group discussion, _______ became _______.

between-group differences; greater

Consistent with what is known about group polarization, Schkade and Sunstein (2003) found that on federal appellate court cases, a Republican judge sitting with two other Republican judges voted _____ than when sitting with one Democratic judge.

more conservatively

In a study by Latané and his colleagues (1979), participants were asked to shout and clap as loud as possible. Participants produced the most noise when they

thought they were shouting alone

Kayla's grandparents emigrated from Europe. Kayla holds such a strong belief that her ethnic group is superior to all others that she could accurately be described as being

ethnocentric

Mary tells you that she thinks the reason people live in poverty is because they are lazy. Mary's thinking is an example of the _______ phenomenon.

just-world

Taylor and Fiske (1978) found that a Black in an otherwise White group, a man in an otherwise female group, or a woman in an otherwise male group seem

more prominent and influential.

Betty and Tina, both third-graders in the same classroom, are assigned by their teacher to different groups that will compete in a spelling bee. Betty and Tina each believe that their own group is composed of the better spellers. The girls' beliefs best illustrates

an ingroup bias.

Ideas about how men and women ought to behave are called _______, whereas people's ideas about how women and men do behave are called _______.

gender-role norms; gender stereotypes

In studies on violence, Eron and Huesmann (1980; 1985) found that 8-year-olds who watched the most violence were

more likely to be convicted of a crime.

The blocking of goal-directed behavior is called

frustration

Americans' ideas for protecting themselves include all of the following EXCEPT

don't kill people who kill

Court (1985) reported that as pornographic materials become more widely available, the rate of reported rapes has generally been found to

increase

The results of the Schachter and Singer (1962) experiment in which participants were injected with adrenaline prior to spending time with either a hostile or a euphoric person supports the idea that

bodily arousal feeds one emotion or another depending on how we interpret the arousal.

MacDonald and her colleagues (2000) found that intoxicated people administered stronger shocks and felt angrier when thinking about

relationship conflicts

_______ in discussion produces more attitude change than does _______.

Active participation; passive listening

_______ refers to the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others.

The social facilitation effect

Individuals who believe that physician-assisted suicides should be legalized meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after the discussion the individuals will be

even more convinced that physician-assisted suicides should be legalized.

Which two symptoms of groupthink lead group members to overestimate their group's right and might?

an illusion of invulnerability and an unquestioned belief in the group's morality

On exam day, a student you do not know sits near you. This person is best described as a(n)

co-actor

Students who join extracurricular groups on campus tend to find their attitudes regarding the groups' purpose increase if they stay in the group. This is an example of

group polarization

Which of the following is an example of benevolent sexism?

"Women have a superior moral sensibility."

Around the world, people tend to prefer

baby boys

Ideas about how men and women ought to behave are called _______, whereas people's ideas about how women and men do behave are called _______.

gender-role norms; gender stereotypes

Myers indicates that, until recently, prejudice was greatest in regions where slavery was practiced. This fact is consistent with the principle that _______ breeds prejudice.

unequal status

_______ occurs when groups of individuals who do not fit their stereotype are thought of as "exceptions to the rule."

Subtyping

According to survey research conducted in the U.S., racial prejudice toward African Americans

has decreased since the early 1940s.

Repeated exposure to erotic films that feature quick, uncommitted sex does NOT have which effect?

tends to increase attraction for one's partner

In contrast to Freud's view of aggression, Lorenz argued that aggression is

adaptive rather than self-destructive.

Long-term studies of New Zealand children revealed that

the interaction of genes and the environment can cause aggressive behavior.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Heavy exposure to televised violence does not correlate with aggressive behavior.

In a revision of the frustration-aggression theory, Berkowitz emphasized the importance of

anger, an emotional readiness to aggress.

Your boss told you that she is giving you a 5 percent raise starting with your next paycheck. You are very pleased to hear this good news until you learn that some of your coworkers earned a 10 percent raise. Now you are unhappy and angry about your raise. Your experience is best explained in terms of

the relative deprivation principle.

Your psychology professor has assigned group projects to your class. She has chosen to individually grade each student's contribution to the assignment as an attempt to reduce

social loafing

Under the definition that is in the text, which of the following is NOT a group?

five people riding the bus

According to the social facilitation effect, social psychologists can accurately predict that athletes will perform _______ with a large audience.

best

Triplett conducted one of social psychology's first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a _______ relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel and the presence of other children.

positive

When being observed increases evaluation concerns, _______ occurs; when being lost in a crowd decreases evaluation concerns, _______ occurs.

social facilitation; social loafing

A loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension, which can occur in group situations, is called

deindividuation.

Eagly's (1994) "women-are-wonderful" effect is an example of

a favorable stereotype.

Jackman and Senter (1981) found that both men and women think that women are more "emotional" than men. This shows that

members of a stereotype group accept the stereotypes.

The tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race is called the

own-race bias.

Mr. Wong, a high school teacher, tells his class that he thinks boys tend to be less anxious and thus make better speeches than girls do. The girls in his class become apprehensive when preparing and giving speeches in his class. The girls are experiencing

a stereotype threat.

All of these issues contribute to deindividuation EXCEPT

individual values.

Two or more people who interact with and influence one another for longer than a few moments is what social psychologists call a

group

The illusion of unanimity in a group is one aspect of

groupthink.

At your factory job, output was measured at the end of every day by how much the team of workers you belonged to produced. Because of this evaluation procedure, your behavior was characterized by _______; now that a new manager has taken over and each individual worker's output is measured by a computer, your behavior is now characterized by _______.

social loafing; social facilitation

Groups tend to loaf less when

the members of the group are friends.

Whenever your friend Ted surfs online, he writes terribly harsh letters to strangers using a bogus email address. Ted's behavior can likely be attributed to the role of _______ in deindividuation.

physical anonymity

Although most suspects in cases of incest, child molestation, and sexual abuse are heterosexual males, the local newspaper omits the word "heterosexual" in any related headlines. In contrast, whenever a self-described gay male is arrested for a crime, the headline proclaims "homosexual arrested." The resulting prejudice that gay males are more likely to commit violent crimes can in part be blamed on

an illusory correlation.

Most Americans agree that

they would vote for a qualified woman whom their party nominated for president.

Instinctive behavior is behavior that is

innate, unlearned, and shown by all members of a species.

Some of the ways we can reduce aggression were listed in the text summary. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways?

Expressing aggression by catharsis tends to decrease aggression.

Myers suggests that one way we could reduce aggression is by

training parents how to discipline without violence.

Anderson's (2003) research on the effects of video games has reported that there is a _______ relationship between playing violent games and the frequency of arguments with teachers.

positive

Fourteen-year-old Kevin frequently watches violent television programs. This will most likely lead him to

become more fearful of being personally assaulted.

Which one of the following does NOT predict increased aggression?

the presence of the researcher

Kubey and Csikszentmihaly (2002) reported that compared to active recreation, television watching

sucks people's energy and dampens their moods.

Which of the following has NOT been linked with aggressive behavior according to your text?

an unexpected request

How intense and reactive we are in infancy reflects our

temperament

In the 1940s, researchers Clark and Clark (1947) gave African American children a choice between Black dolls and White dolls. Results showed that most children

chose white dolls

Sack and Elder (2000) found that more than 80 percent of both Whites and Blacks say race relations are generally good in their neighborhoods, but fewer than 60 percent see relations as generally good in the country as a whole. This is referred to as

an ingroup biass

According to Myers, many disadvantaged youths find pride and identity in gang affiliations, which is their way of

seeking self-esteem

Kleck and Strenta (1980) had women who falsely believed that they appeared disfigured by theatrical makeup interact with a female partner. Results indicated that women who thought they were disfigured

rated their partners as more tense, distant, and patronizing.

A consistent finding is that no matter how religious commitment is assessed,

the very devout are less prejudice

The relationship between self-consciousness and deindividuation is

negative

Triplett conducted one of social psychology's first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a _______ relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel and the presence of other children.

positive

Closed-mindedness is most clearly fostered by which of the following symptoms of groupthink?

rationalization

People in groups will loaf less when the

task is challenging, appealing, or involving.

Social psychologists have accurately predicted that _______ will exhibit less social loafing.

women

The fact that people associate mostly with others whose attitudes are similar to their own suggests the prevalence of naturally occurring

group polarization

A study of brain activity in the prefrontal cortex of murderers found

less activity than usual

According to the social learning theory, whether we act aggressively depends on

the anticipated consequences.

Mullen (1986) reported that the more people that are in a lynch mob, the _______ the murder and mutilation.

more vicious

Kubey and Csikszentmihaly (2002) reported that compared to active recreation, television watching

sucks people's energy and dampens their moods.

Repeated exposure to fictional scenes of a man overpowering and arousing a woman

distorted people's perceptions of how women actually respond to sexual coercion.

Your new roommate introduces himself as having an Irish and Tahitian background. You are most likely to introduce your roommate to your friends as

Tahitian.

Altemeyer (2004) reported that _______ are among the most prejudiced persons in our society.

people high in social dominance and authoritarianism

The process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group is called

leadership

Deindividuation is _____ likely when self-awareness is _____.

less; high

When being observed increases evaluation concerns, _______ occurs; when being lost in a crowd decreases evaluation concerns, _______ occurs.

social facilitation; social loafing

Martha is excellent at organizing her employees, setting goals, and focusing on achieving those goals for the company. Martha excels in

task leadership

Which of the following is an example of aggression as it is defined in the text?

Luisa urges her classmates not to vote for Marcy for dormitory senator, citing some rumors about Marcy's social life.

The study of neural influences on aggression has indicated that

activating the amygdala can facilitate aggressive outbursts in humans.

A group of people who share a sense of belonging or a feeling of common identity is called a(n)

ingroup

John has just failed a chemistry test. He goes back to his apartment and criticizes his roommate's choice of music. What term best describes John's behavior?

displaced aggression

Sack and Elder (2000) found that more than 80 percent of both Whites and Blacks say race relations are generally good in their neighborhoods, but fewer than 60 percent see relations as generally good in the country as a whole. This is referred to as

an ingroup bias

Initial research on risk taking found that group discussion leads to

more risk than the average individual would take.

According to the text, groupthink symptoms can be viewed as a form of dissonance reduction as group members

try to maintain their positive group feelings.

According to social psychologists, a group exists when two or more people interact with and influence each other, and

also perceive themselves as "us."

Sanders, Baron, and Moore (1978) explained social facilitation by noting that a conflict occurs between paying attention to others and paying attention to the task at hand. They named this explanation

driven by distraction

When people experience a loss of self-awareness as well as evaluation apprehension, they are in a state of

deindividuation.

Which of the following is a comment you are LEAST likely to hear being made within a group characterized by groupthink?

"Let's weigh all the alternatives carefully before we proceed."

You have noticed that when you are at the gym, your exercise routine is not affected by how may other people are there. However, it is affected when other people are watching you exercise. This pattern in your behavior is what social psychologists call

evaluation apprehension.

People high in social dominance orientation tend to support policies that _______ hierarchies and oppose policies that _______ hierarchies.

maintain; undermine

When the output of collective farms and private plots were compared,

the private plots were more productive.

When others expect us to perform poorly and our anxiety causes us to confirm their belief, we have reacted to

a stereotype threat.

Assuming that sick people are responsible for their illnesses is an example of the _______ phenomenon.

just-world

Hamilton and Rose's (1980) research in which students read sentences describing accountants, doctors, and salespeople revealed that

pre-existing stereotypes lead us to "see" correlations that do not exist.

Linking good fortune with virtue and misfortune with moral failure enables fortunate people to feel pride and enables unfortunate people to avoid responsibility. This is an example of the _______ phenomenon.

just-world

The realistic group conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises

when groups compete for scarce resources.

Research suggests that the sight of a weapon can

prime aggressive thoughts.

The near consensus among social psychologists is that

viewing or participating in violence fails to produce catharsis.

According to Myers, in 2003 American and British leaders justified attacking Iraq not as a hostile effort to kill Iraqis, but as an instrumental act of liberation and of self-defense against presumed weapons of mass destruction. Social psychologists would consider this an example of _______ aggression.

instrumental

In a revision of the frustration-aggression theory, Berkowitz emphasized the importance of

anger, an emotional readiness to aggress.

Which of the following is an example of group polarization in one's community?

gang delinquency

On Halloween night, Diener and her colleagues (1976) conducted a study of trick-or-treat theft at homes scattered throughout the Seattle area. Given a chance to steal candy, the children who were _______ were most likely to commit transgressions.

anonymous and in a group

Research on brainstorming reveals that people working _______ will generate _______ good ideas.

alone; more

A review of studies on deindividuation showed that physical anonymity makes one _______ to cues presented in a situation, whether negative or positive.

more responsive

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