Europe and Russia

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Belarus

Consists of 80% natives
11% Russians

Belarus

Became one of Russia's most loyal satellites after WWII.

Belarus

No interest in EU, and would actually like to join back with Russia in some formal way.

Landlocked Center

Consists of 3 countries in mid Europe. Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary.

Czechoslovakia

Formally one nation now has split into two nations after what has been called the "velvet divorce" 1993

Czech Republic

The capital of this country (Prague) is a great example of a primate city and has a cultural landscape faithful to their traditions.

Prague, Czech Republic

This is the most westernized city, as well as being a primate city and very industrial.

Czech Republic

Their small Roma minority was an issue during 2004

Slovakia

The least developed, most rural part of what was once Czechoslovakia.

Slovakia

Have a politically uncertain situation

Hungary

Has a Nation-State of 10 Million and is a classic example of a primate city.

Hungary

The Magyars moved into this country more than 10,000 years ago.

Hungarians

This country also has people native to it living in Austria, Slovakia, Serbia, and Romania. Due to when they used to inhabit a great deal of Europe.

Irredentism

A policy of cultural extension and political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country. Italy was once a country that did this and Hungary is continuing to support it today.

Hungary

Economic mismanagement and political intrigue combined to make this country Europe's most deeply indebted country

Facing the Black Sea

Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, Former Yugoslovia, and Albania

Romania

A former Roman province

Romania

This country's political system reflects communists elements. Has a weak economy and poor social indicators. But a recent member of the EU

Romania

The capital, Bucharest, is slowly decaying in this country. When it was once the "Paris of the Balkans" has now been caleed the "basket case of the Balkans"

Romania

Important to Europe. Has population of 21.5 million and bridges gap from central Europe to south eastern part of the realm.

Romania

The country also has high unemployment and depleted oil fields.

Bulgaria

LIberated by Russia from Turks in 1878. Until they were driven out they were treated unkind here when the country closed all mosques, prohibited use of turkish laguage and forced turks to adopt slavic names.

Bulgaria

Slavics make up 84% of the 7.6 million people.

Bulgaria

Coast has a major port but its main adavantage of being near the black sea is its tourist trade.

United Kingdom

This country announced that it would restrict workers immigrating from Romania and Bulgaria and said that the EU leaders had crossed the line in admitting them into the union.

Ukraine

Has superb natural and agricultural resources. Local coal and iron ore.

Ukraine

Largest state in the entire realm. Western part is largely agrarian and rural with mostly Roman Catholics. Eastern part is industrial and mostly Russian Orthodox.

Ukraine

Emerged from the Soviet period with a huge industrial complex in its east and a large Russian minority of 17%.

Ukraine

Kiev, this country's capitol, has a Historical, Political, and Cultural focus.

Ukraine

Has International shipping lanes, large resource base, significant farm production, educated and skilled labor, huge and domesticated market center

Moldova

Once a Romanian province but was seized by Russia

Moldova

Ukraine's small and impoverished neighbor that is in many ways the poorest country in Europe.

Moldova

Has Russian influenced sepratists that have formed what is being proclaimed as "Republic of Transdneistria" on the other side of the Dniester river.

Moldova

Ha a population of 4 million with 13% Russians and 13% Ukrainians

Former Yugoslavia

Country the consisted of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Albania

Slovenia

First to secede from Former Yugoslavia; ethnically most homogeneous

Croatia

4.4 million people

Russia

Has a small population relative to its size and it continues to decline. But historically has been a world empire and colonial power.

76.6

What percent of the total territory formally known as the U.S.S.R. does Russia make up.

3 environmental conditions of Russia

Latitudinal position, Continental position, location of major mountains

Physiographic Regions of Russia

Russian Plain, Ural Mountains, West Siberian Plain, Central Siberian Plateau, Yakutsk Basin, Eastern Highlands, Central Asian Ranges, and Caucasus Mountains

Russian Plain

The Physiographic region of Russia that has a core area surrounding the Moscow region

Ural Mountains

The physiographic region of Russian that is marked as a boundary between European Russia and Asian Russia, does not hinder transportation, and is rich in fossil fuels and minerals.

West Siberian Plain

The phsiographic region of Russia that has the world's largest unbroken lowland.

Central Siberian Plateau

The Physiogrpahic region of Russia that is sparsely populated and has permafrost and temperature extremes as well as long cold winter, hardly any summer, and no human activity

Yakutsk Basin

The physiographic region of Russia that has Mountains, High Relief

Eastern Highlands

The physiographic region of Russian that has Ranges, Ridges, and precipitous valleys, volcanic mountains, Lake Baykal

Central Asian Ranges

The physiographic region of Russia that rises above the snow line; glaciated

Caucasus Mountains

the physiographic region of Russian that is an extension of the Alps

Climatology

Investigates not only the distribution of climatic conditions over the Earth's surface but also the processes that generate the spatial arrangement.

continentality

inland climatic environment remote from moderating and moistening maritime influences.

Tundra

Treeless plain along the arctic shore where mosses, lichens, and some grasses survive

Taiga

The mostly coniferous forsets that begin south of where the tundra ends

Permafrost

Water on the ground that is permanently frozen

relief

range of elevations

topography

surface configuration

Steppe

Short grass prairie

Forward Capital

Captial City positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.

Czar Peter the Great

Ruled from 1682-1725
Founder of modern Russia
St. Petersburg built in his reign as a forward capital

Czarina Catherine the Great

Ruled from 1760-1796
Penetrated the muntainous Caucausus wiht dozens of ethnic and cultrual groups.
Made Russia a colonial power
Sold Russia's Alskan territory to US

Colonialism

Rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place.

Imperialism

The drive toward the creation and expansion of a colonial empire and once, extablished, its perpetuation.

Russification

Demographic resettlement policies pursued by the central planners of the Soviet Empire, wherby ethnic Rssians wer encouraged to emigrate from the Russian Republic to the 14 non-Russian republics of the U.S.S.R.

Command Economy

Means of production are owned and controlled by the state and in which central planning of the structure and the output prevails.

Soviet Economy

Features 1.)Particular manufactured goods in particular places
2.) Economic Interdependence of the Republics

Soviet Union

Decline in agricultural and industrial production, ethno cultural nationalisim and sepratism, Pluralization of soviet politics and steady erosion of communist party and monopoly power, and the emergence of the "commonwealth" of slavic countries caused a collapse of what?

Russian Federation

What is the current organization of Russia that began in 1992

ASSR

Within the SSR. Smaller minorities that were assigned political units of lesser rank.

Federalism

Sharing of power between a country's central government and its political subdivisions

Federation

Central government represents the various subnational entities within a nation state where they have common interests, yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities.

Principal obejectives of Soviet Planners

1.) To accelerate industrialization 2.) TO collectivize agriculture

Sovkhoz

Literally means a grain-and-meat factory

Moscow and St. Petersburg

2 autonomous Federal cities of Russia

Unitary State System

A nation-state that has a centralized governement and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state.

Distance Decay

When increasing distances between places tend to reduce interactions among them.

Changing Social Geographies

1. Revival of Religion 2.Failure of the Pension System 3. Rise of the Oligarchs 4. Crime and Corruption 5. Experimental Freedoms

Population Decline

Russia is expected to have about 130 million citizens by 2050. This is an example of what?

Xenophobia

Fear or anger toward foreigners and strangers

Core area

The heartland of a state

Unsolved problems for Russia

1.Ownership of oil and gas in Caspian Basin 2. settlement of Kurile Islands 3. Relations with Transcaucasian neighbor Georgia 4. Efforts to Unite with Belarus

Russian Regions

Russian Core, Siberia, Eastern Frontier, Far East

Moscow

contains third of the country's population. Automobile, tire, and textile producing centers lie around the outside of this city. Not architechtually appealing but has historical sturctres as well as modern architechture

St. Petersburg

Russia's number two city. Major Historical and cultural city.

Povolzhyye

Region within the Russian core. Name that means it extends along the middle and lower valley of the Volga River

Volga River

Russia's Greatest river

Chechnya

Has a devastated capital city, contains sizeable Muslim population, and continue to this day to resist Russian authority

Ural Mountains

This geographical piece is sometimes used to end the European side of Russia and show the beginnings of the Asian side.

Transcaucasia

Historically a battleground for Christians and Muslims, Armenians and Turks, Russians and Persians. Today contains 3 former Soviet Socialist Republics: Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan.

Exclave

Bounded piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies seprarted from it by the territory of another state.

Norden

Termed by people who live in the Northern European region

Copenhagen

Considered the "Singapore of the Baltic"

Break-of-Bulk

When large ocean going vessels cannot enter a shallow harbor

Entrepot

A city is called this when transfer facilitiis and activities prevail

Kalaallit Nunaat

Inuit name given to Greenland when it changed from a colony to a province

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