Define nutrition and explain three functions of each of the six classes of major nutrients.
- provide energy- Carbohydrate,Fat,
regulate body processes-Minerals,Vitamins
MyPyramid Education Framework
Replaces the Food Guide Pyramid
health, activity,nutritional guidance, specific information for all age groups.
Recommendations of MyPyramid
Eat in moderation,Include activity.
Foods that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals with relatively fewer calories.
Kilocalorie (kcal or C)
The unit of measurement that specifies the heat energy in a particular amount of food
Calorie values of energy nutrients
1 g carb. 4 C, 1 g fat 9 C,1 g protein 4 C
Amount of energy/calories needed depends on
Resting energy expenditure (REE)
total calories needed to maintain body processes.
With the exception of pepsin and trypsin
all enzymes end in the suffix -ase
Chemical Digestion is made possible with the help of _______, catalysts in the body that help speed up the "Reactions of Life"
begin in the mouth salivary
Pancreatic enzymes and the intestinal-wall brush border villi
break food into particles that can be absorbed
Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
begins in the mouth
Enzymes in saliva
salivary amylase, aka ptyalin
salivary amylase, aka ptyalin
These enzymes begin breaking down starch into smaller CHO molecules, known as dextrin.
No enzymatic digestion
of CHO occurs in stomach.
Small intestine- enzyme from the pancreas,
called pancreatic amylase
Converts complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into maltose, a disaccharide (double sugar)
Enzymes sucrase, maltase, and lactase available
Liver converts fructose & galactose
to glucose Used for immediate energy or Stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen
Glucose that remains after
energy and glycogen needs are met is
converted to fat and stored.
Only form of sugar that the body can use
Fiber in the diet
passes out of the body virtually undigested
One (mono-) sugar (-saccharide)
Monosaccharides-Classified as simple carbohydrates or simple sugars
blood sugar or dextrose
Most commonly occurring sugar in the body
Fructose also called levulose or fruit sugar
simple sugar Found naturally in honey, fruits, and saps
Galactose (no natural sugar)
combined with glucose in the disaccharide lactose (milk sugar)
Contain two (di-) sugar (-saccharide) molecules
Classified as simple carbohydrates or simple sugars
Table sugar,Composed of fructose and glucose
the sugar found in milk
person lacks the enzyme lactase
Bloating, gas, and diarrhea.
Not found freely in food
Produced as an intermediate in starch digestion
Also produced through the process of malting (malted milk) and brewing (beer)
Complex carbohydrates or
sugar molecules, insoluble in water
Types of polysaccharides
Chief source of carbohydrates in the diet.
Main source of starch(Polysaccharides)
Grains,Legumes,Roots, Tubers, Bulb, Seeds.
Cooking starch-containing foods speeds up their digestion
because enzymes in saliva can act on cooked starch but have little effect on raw starch
Starch must be broken down into glucose
before the body can use it.
Formed as an intermediate in starch digestion by the action of enzymes or heat
Body's storage form of carbohydrate
Fiber, commonly known as
commonly known as
Water insoluble, wheat bran and other whole-grain breads and cereals
Water insoluble dietary fiber
Framework of plants
Include; Cellulose, Lignin
Water soluble dietary fiber
Found in, Oats, Legumes,Apples- Slow gastric emptying time,
Water soluble dietary
fiber Found in, Oats, Legumes,Apples
Improve glucose tolerance in people with diabetes
Water soluble fiber
Role of dietary fiber
Helps to prevent constipation,Lowers levels of Serum glucose Serum cholesterol,Possibly aids in weight reduction
Kwashiorkor: severe malnutrition, primarily in children
Child has calories; does not lose weight as drastically as with marasmus
malnutrition in child.
Child develops mental and physical retardation
Liver necrosis and ascites cause appearance of bloated abdomen
Women who are diagnosed with GDM are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life.special diet to control b/s.
Infants double their birth weight in 6 months and triple it in a year.
Common nutritional problems during childhood
are iron deficiency anemia and obesity.
Children should not be forced to eat.
Nutrition: Infancy Cow's milk
is a poor source of iron, may cause intestinal bleeding, unsuitably high levels of protein, phosphorus, and electrolytes
Iron-fortified infant rice cereal i
s recommended as the first solid food because it is unlikely to cause an allergic reaction.
Risk of botulism
infants should not be given honey until after the age of 1
Iron deficiency anemia may be
a problem for
girls after the onset of menses and in boys during their growth spurt.
Iron deficiency anemia can lead to
fatigue and decreased ability to concentrate and to learn