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retroactive interference

Jessica took psychology in the fall semester and is now taking sociology. Several of the concepts are similar, and Jessica finds that she sometimes has trouble recalling some of the major psychological theorists. She keeps getting them confused with sociological theorists. Jessica's problem is most likely due to _______________.
Select one:
a. proactive interference
b. retroactive interference
c. decoding failure
d. Toronto syndrome

encoding failure

Most people have difficulty actually recognizing the correct image of the Lincoln penny. The most likely cause of this problem is _______________.
Select one:
a. encoding failure
b. interference
c. repression
d. memory trace decay

the sea; fish; hooks

If memory were like the sea, we could say that ______ is long-term memory, ______ are the specific memories, and _______ are retrieval cues.
Select one:
a. a boat; worms; fish
b. the sea; fish; hooks
c. an island; worms; fishing poles
d. a boat; hooks; worms

a photograph

Which of the following might be the most appropriate analogy for eidetic imagery?
Select one:
a. a rainbow
b. a photograph
c. a modem
d. a table

He created nonsense syllables in order to study memory in a "pure" form

Your teacher has given each student the name of a key figure in the history of psychology. The assignment is to describe at least one significant contribution made by this person. If your historical figure is Hermann Ebbinghaus, what contribution might you describe to the class?
Select one:
a. He described the limits of sensory storage.
b. He discovered the parts of the brain responsible for processing memories.
c. He created nonsense syllables in order to study memory in a "pure" form.
d. He developed a series of memory aids that is still used by students today.

sensory memory and short-term memory

Decay theory works well to explain forgetting in _____________.
Select one:
a. sensory memory only
b. short-term memory only
c. long-term memory only
d. sensory memory and short-term memory

tip-of-the-tongue effects

Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War (whatever that was!). Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth and can almost remember it; she knows that it is something like Texas. Janie is walking down the stairs, when all of a sudden, she remembers that the fifth point is taxes, but it is too late. Janie was suffering from ______________.
Select one:
a. tip-of-the-tongue effects
b. evaluation overload
c. storage inversion
d. encoding problems

encoding failure

Most people have difficulty actually recognizing the correct image of the Lincoln penny. The most likely cause of this problem is _______________.
Select one:
a. memory trace decay
b. encoding failure
c. interference
d. repression

chunking

Loni is asked to memorize the letters I K T E A L N in no particular order. She memorizes them by reorganizing them into the words INK and LATE. This tactic is called ______.
Select one:
a. rote rehearsal
b. shadowing
c. chunking
d. cueing

quickly at first, then tapers off gradually

Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten ____________.
Select one:
a. quickly at first, then tapers off gradually
b. gradually at first, then with increasing speed
c. more rapidly as time goes by
d. most quickly one day after learning

all of these are good objections

A terrible crime is committed, and an eyewitness is unable to identify whether a suspect arrested by the police is actually the one who committed the crime. The police bring in Madame Xanadu to hypnotize the witness, and then the witness identifies the suspect the police have in custody. Of course, the Madame knew who the suspect was before she hypnotized the witness. At the trial, the defense attorney objects. The core of the objection to the judge would be that ___________.
Select one:
a. hypnosis makes it much easier to create false memories, or pseudomemories
b. all of these are good objections.
c. the use of hypnosis makes it very easy for factors like the misinformation effect or constructive processing effect to come into play through the influence of the hypnotist's knowledge and suggestions
d. memories obtained under hypnosis are no more accurate than others but the jury will think they are and, thus, bias the case

decay or disuse

A psychologist asks people to recall the name of their kindergarten teacher. Surprisingly, the majority of people correctly do this and comment, "Gee whiz, I haven't thought about that old bat [or old coot] in years!" Their ability to do so is a severe problem for which theory of forgetting?
Select one:
a. encoding failure
b. retroactive interference
c. decay or disuse
d. interference theory

walk through a mental image of the path and describe it to you as he does it

You ask a student to describe the path to his dorm room. The most likely way in which he will do this is to _________.
Select one:
a. walk through a mental image of the path and describe it to you as he does it
b. give you the GPS location of his dorm room
c. describe the number of steps he takes to get there
d. recite a rote list of directions he memorized

hindsight bias

Rochelle remembered getting "B's" in her English lit classes in college. But years later when she applied for a job and took out her transcript, she was shocked to find that she had actually gotten "C-" grades. She then started telling everyone she remembers being a pretty poor student.Her erratic memory of her mediocre performance is most likely due to ___________.
Select one:
a. hindsight bias
b. her poor memory
c. consolidation
d. eidetic imagery

unlimited

It is thought that long-term memory never can get filled up. The term used to describe the capacity of long-term memory is _______________.
Select one:
a. limited by the size of a person's brain
b. unlimited
c. about 10,000 items
d. 7, plus or minus 2

means-end analysis

In a heuristic called ___________, a person determines the difference between the current situation and the goal and then tries to reduce that difference by various methods.
Select one:
a. availability heuristic
b. means-end analysis
c. rule of linked arms
d. representative heuristic

elaborative

You are learning a list of items for a test by relating the items to each other and to information that you already have stored in memory. Which type of rehearsal are you using?
Select one:
a. elaborative
b. permanent
c. condensed
d. maintenance

anterograde amnesia

A police officer is shot in a gun battle with bank robbers. Although emergency brain surgery saves his life, it leaves him unable to store new information. The officer's family is applying to the state for compensation for his injuries. When asked to provide a diagnosis of the difficulties he suffers, what will they write?
Select one:
a. anterograde amnesia
b. retroactive amnesia
c. retrograde amnesia
d. proactive amnesia

constructive processing

It's Thanksgiving and the whole family has gotten together. You start to reminisce about your childhood and get into an argument with your brother. Both of you claim that you were the innocent victim of the other. This is an example of __________.
Select one:
a. hindsight bias
b. adaptation of memory traces
c. constructive processing
d. flashbulb integration

retrograde amnesi; anterograde amnesia

If ____________is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, __________ is like pushing the "save" key and having the document disappear instead of being stored.
Select one:
a. adolescent amnesia; conductive amnesia
b. procedural amnesia; implicit amnesia
c. anterograde amnesia; retrograde amnesia
d. retrograde amnesi; anterograde amnesia

happy

The research of Eich and Metcalf would suggest that if you were really happy when you were learning math, you should be ______ when taking the math exam to do well.
Select one:
a. depressed
b. happy
c. nervous
d. calm

elaborative; maintenance

_______ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long-term memory compared to _______ rehearsal.
Select one:
a. Elaborative; maintenance
b. Maintenance; elaborative
c. Permanent; condensed
d. Condensed; permanent

senile dementia

Research has shown that people who regularly work crossword puzzles, take classes, read, and stay mentally active are less likely to develop _________ than those who fail to use their minds.
Select one:
a. neural failure in the hippocampus
b. Krohn's syndrome
c. senile dementia
d. aphasia

7, plus or minus 2

In the 1950s, George Miller estimated the number of items that could be stored in short-term memory to be the magic number __________.
Select one:
a. 9, plus or minus 3
b. 7, plus or minus 2
c. 5, plus or minus 4
d. 11, plus or minus 1

insight

A seemingly arbitrary flash “out of the blue,” through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you “figured it out,” is called ______.
Select one:
a. priming
b. brainstorming
c. a mental set
d. insight

false positive

The case of Father Bernard Pagano, who was identified by seven eyewitnesses as a criminal, was an instance of a ____________.
Select one:
a. retrieval failure
b. false positive
c. tip-of-the-tongue effect
d. primacy effect

curve of forgetting

Hermann Ebbinghaus found that memory is best immediately after we learn information, and we gradually forget more as time passes. What name is given to this observation?
Select one:
a. serial position curve
b. free recall curve
c. curve of forgetting
d. mirage effect

encoding specificity

Godden and Baddeley found that if you study on land, you do better when tested on land, and if you study underwater, you do better when tested underwater. This finding is an example of_______________.
Select one:
a. memorability
b. encoding specificity
c. registered learning
d. accessible decoding

working memory

According to Baddeley, which memory system is best conceived of as three interrelated systems: central executive, visual sketchpad, and auditory recorder?
Select one:
a. sensory memory
b. long-term memory
c. procedural memory
d. working memory

they are using the representativeness heuristic

Seventy percent of the students in a classroom are women and 30 percent are men. One student is described as ambitious, athletic, and assertive. Why are most people likely to think this description refers to a male student?
Select one:
a. People seek only confirming information.
b. They are using the availability heuristic.
c. People tend to make relative comparisons.
d. They are using the representativeness heuristic.

George Miller's magic number 7, plus or minus 2

Jamal is trying to buy something over the phone. He asks his partner to read him his credit card number. However, when he tries to repeat it to the sales clerk on the other end of the line, he can't remember all the numbers. Jamal is coming up against ______.
Select one:
a. the decay of numerical memory
b. the limits of procedural memory
c. the extinction of auditory traces
d. George Miller's magic number 7, plus or minus 2

retrieval cue

Someone asks you to name the twenty-second president of the United States, but you can't remember. To aid your memory, the person then tells you that the president's name is the same as that of a large city on Lake Erie. Upon hearing the hint, you instantly realize that Grover Cleveland is the answer. In this situation, the hint acted as a ______.
Select one:
a. elaborative rehearsal cue
b. retrieval cue
c. cross code
d. structural cue

explicit; implicit

Declarative memories are to ________ memories as procedural memories are to __________ memories.
Select one:
a. implicit; explicit
b. personal facts; general knowledge
c. general knowledge; personal facts
d. explicit; implicit

easier

Melanie was having a difficult time describing the man who took her purse in the mall parking lot. The officer showed her some pictures of people who had been involved in similar crimes, and she was quickly able to point out the right man. Melanie's situation is a reminder that in comparing recognition to recall, recognition tends to be ______.
Select one:
a. easier.
b. less accurate.
c. more difficult.
d. slower.

semantic

In the game show Jeopardy! contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answers to these kinds of questions is _________.
Select one:
a. procedural
b. working
c. semantic
d. episodic

retroactive interference

Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her French test, all she can remember is history! Shalissa's memory is suffering from ____________.
Select one:
a. decay
b. retroactive interference
c. cue-dependent forgetting
d. proactive interference

consciously; episodic memory

Connie lost her keys. She searches her memory for when she last had them, and goes to that place in the hope that it will help her remember where she misplaced them. Connie is ________ activating her _________.
Select one:
a. unconsciously; episodic memory
b. unconsciously; semantic memory
c. consciously; episodic memory
d. conscious; semantic memory

encoding specificity

"The effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of cues present when the memory was encoded to the cues present when the memory is retrieved." What concept does this statement describe?
Select one:
a. memorability
b. accessible decoding
c. registered learning
d. encoding specificity

proactive interference

What kind of forgetting does the following incident illustrate?
Ruth studied the names of learning theorists for her psychology class, after which she began studying the names of political theorists for her political science class. Much to her frustration, she found the names of the learning theorists were keeping her from being able to learn the names of the political theorists.
Select one:
a. repression
b. retroactive interference Incorrect
incorrect
c. decay
d. proactive interference

the patient will not be able to remember new information

A patient's chart indicates he just had surgery to remove his hippocampus as a result of a tumor. What change do you anticipate in the patient after the operation?
Select one:
a. The patient will not be able to remember new information.
b. The patient will not be able to perform tasks such as block designs.
c. The patient will have problems experiencing hunger.
d. The patient will not be able to process colors.

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