Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is

industry versus inferiority.

Jacob, a sixth grader, entered the middle school academic bowl. According to Erikson, by entering the competition, Jacob shows

industriousness.

According to Erikson, a sense of _________ can develop in middle childhood when family life fails to prepare children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy childrens feelings of competence and mastery with negative responses.

inferiority

Eleven-year-old Leah has developed a sense of competence at a number of useful skills and tasks. She has a positive but realistic self-concept and takes pride in her accomplishments. According to Erikson, Leah has

positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhood.

During the school years, children refine their __________, organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions.

self-concept

Beginning in middle childhood, childrens self-descriptions start to emphasize

both negative and positive characteristics.

School-age children use frequent _________ in their self-descriptions.

social comparisons

Which of the following statements is true about the development of self-concept?

Perspective-taking skills are crucial for developing a self-concept based on personality traits.

As school-age children move into adolescence, self-concept is increasingly vested in

feedback from close friends.

Sam is an American sixth grader. Compared to his Asian agemates, when asked to describe himself, Sam is more likely to say which of the following?

I like hockey.

Compared to his Western agemates, Chao, who lives in China, will most likely describe himself by referencing his

group memberships and relationships.

Self-esteem adjusts to a more realistic level in middle childhood largely as the result of

feedback about self-performance compared with that of peers.

During childhood and adolescence, perceived __________ correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than any other self-esteem factor.

physical appearance

Which of the following statements is true about self-esteem in elementary school?

It declines during the first few years of elementary school and then, from fourth grade on, rises for the majority of young people.

From middle childhood on, individual differences in self-esteem

become increasingly stable.

Self-esteem takes on a __________ structure in the mid-elementary school years.

hierarchical

Which of the following is true about cultural influences on self-esteem?

Asian children score lower in self-esteem than North American children.

Compared to his Caucasian-American agemates, Leonard, an African-American fourth grader, is more likely to have

higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of ethnic pride.

Children whose parents use a(n) _____________ child-rearing style feel especially good about themselves.

authoritative

____________ parenting is associated with unrealistically high self-esteem.

indulgent

Nadias parents are repeatedly disapproving and insulting. As a result, Nadia probably __________ and relies heavily on __________ to affirm her self-worth.

needs constant reassurance; peers

Mr. and Mrs. Rodriguez want to foster their sons self-esteem. Which of the following would you suggest?

Encourage him to strive for worthwhile goals because his eventual achievement will foster his self-esteem.

Children who are high in academic self-esteem and motivation make _________ attributions, crediting their successes to __________.

mastery-oriented; ability

When Tyler receives a high test grade, he attributes it to luck, but when he gets a low test grade, he attributes it to not being smart. Tyler has developed

learned helplessness.

Over time, the ability of __________ children no longer predicts their performance.

learned-helpless

When Sally fails, her parents say, You cant do that, can you? Its OK if you quit. Sally probably will develop

learned helplessness.

Despite their higher achievement, _______ often blame poor performance on __________.

girls; ability

In contrast to Americans, Asians focus more on ________ because ______________.

failure; it indicates where corrective action is needed

Teachers who are ________ and emphasize __________ tend to have mastery-oriented students.

helpful; learning over getting good grades

Attribution research shows that

well-intended messages from adults sometimes undermine childrens competence.

Marlena is enrolled in an intervention program that encourages learned-helpless children to believe they can overcome failure by exerting more effort. This approach is known as

attribution retraining.

Which of the following statements is true about self-conscious emotions in middle childhood?

Pride motivates children to take on further challenges, whereas guilt prompts them to strive for self-improvement.

Nine-year-old Marlons grandmother comes to live with his family. She is overly harsh and uses insensitive reprimands to shame him when he has done something wrong. Which of the following is likely?

Marlon will experience a sharp drop in self-esteem and will display depression and intense anger toward his grandmother.

Compared to preschoolers, school-age children are more likely to explain emotion by referring to __________ than to __________.

internal states; external events

During middle childhood, childrens emotional understanding develops as they become aware that

people can feel more than one emotion at a time.

Danielle saw a man carrying a sign that said Im hungry. She took the mans perspective, imagined how he felt, and asked her mom if she could give her allowance to the man so that he could buy some food. Danielle has developed

empathy

When Ericas best friend makes her angry, she takes a deep breath and counts to ten. Erica is using

emotion-centered coping.

Which of the following is true about emotional self-regulation in middle childhood?

By age 10, most children shift adaptively between problem-centered and emotion-centered coping.

Andrew has well-developed emotional self-regulation. He feels that he is in control of his emotional experiences. Andrew has acquired

a sense of emotional self-efficacy.

Which of the following is true about moral development?

By middle childhood, children have had time to internalize rules for good conduct, which leads them to become considerably more independent and trustworthy.

Martina recognizes that other people can have different thoughts and feelings from her own, but she frequently confuses the two. Martina is displaying behavior consistent with Level ____ of Selmans stages of perspective taking.

0

Fernando has reached the self-reflective level of Selmans stages of perspective taking. Which of the following statements is most likely true about Fernando?

He can step into another persons shoes and view his own thoughts, feelings, and behavior from the other persons perspective.

Kendall understands that third-party perspective taking can be influenced by one or more systems of large societal values. According to Selmans theory of perspective taking, Kendall is in what age range?

14 to adult

Which of the following is true about perspective taking?

Children with poor social skills have great difficulty imagining others thoughts and feelings.

When children in diverse cultures challenge adult authority, they typically do so

within the personal domain.

By the end of middle childhood, children display a strong desire for

group belonging.

Maddy spends most of her time with a particular set of friends. Within this group, there are specific standards of behavior, a specialized dress code, and identified leaders. Maddy is most likely

part of a peer group.

Research on peer groups during middle childhood shows that

within peer groups, children learn cooperation, leadership, followership, and loyalty to collective goals.

In middle childhood, __________ contributes to the development of trust and sensitivity.

friendship

Once a friendship forms, ________ becomes its defining feature.

trust

Studies of friendship during middle childhood show that

by age 8 or 9, most children say they have only a handful of good friends.

Research on aggressive childrens friendships reveals that

the social problems of aggressive children operate within their closest peer ties.

When classmates are asked to rate each others likeability, __________ children get many positive votes, whereas __________ children are seldom mentioned.

popular; neglected

On a measure of peer acceptance, Michael received a large number of positive and negative votes. Michael would be considered a __________ child.

controversial

On a measure of peer acceptance, Dustin was seldom mentioned either positively or negatively. Dustin would be considered a ___________ child.

neglected

__________ children are at the highest risk for poor school performance, antisocial behavior, substance abuse, and delinquency.

rejected

The majority of popular-prosocial children combine __________ and __________ competence.

academic; social

Harrison is a popular-antisocial child. Which characteristic is he likely to display?

He is athletically skilled but is a poor student who causes trouble and defies adult authority.

Rejected-aggressive children are

deficient in perspective taking and emotional self-regulation.

Skye, a rejected-withdrawn child, is most likely

very concerned about being scorned and attacked.

Which of the following is true about controversial and neglected children?

Controversial children display a blend of positive and negative social behaviors.

Jos is a rejected-withdrawn child who has developed a learned-helpless approach to peer difficulties. This means that Jos

assumes that he will never be liked, no matter what he does.

Research has shown that parents promote gender stereotypes by

behaving in a more mastery-oriented fashion with sons than with daughters.

Which of the following statements is true about peer victimization?

Biologically based traits, such as an inhibited temperament and a frail physical appearance, contribute to victimization.

Research on peer victimization shows that

developing a school code against bullying can reduce peer victimization.

Research shows that school-age children

rate masculine occupations as having higher status than feminine occupations.

School-age children are likely to view which of the following activities as nearly as bad as a moral transgression?

5-year-old Mark nail wearing polish

From third grade to sixth grade, boys ___________ their identification with masculine personality traits, whereas girls identification with feminine personality traits __________.

strengthen; declines

Which of the following is true about gender typicality?

Childrens psychological well-being depends, to some degree, on feeling that they fit in with their same-sex peers.

Octavio feels satisfied with his gender assignment, which consequently makes him happy. Which of the following selfevaluations reflects Octavios gender identity?

gender contentedness

Dwayne feels that his parents and peers disapprove of his knitting hobby. His parents have tried to encourage him to consider other hobbies, such as woodworking or coin collecting. Dwayne is distressed and stops knitting. Which of the following accurately describes Dwaynes gender identity self-evaluation?

felt pressure to conform to gender roles

Which of the following is true about gender identity and behavior in middle childhood?

Children who experience rejection because of gender-atypical personality traits suffer profoundly.

Despite the concerns of middle childhood, child rearing becomes easier for those parents who established a(n) ___________ style in the early years.

authoritative

Mr. and Mrs. Pribesh have begun to change how they supervise their son. While they exercise general oversight, they now allow him to take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. The Pribeshes are engaging in

coregulation.

Effective coregulation is based on a(n)

cooperative relationship between parent and child based on give-and-take and mutual respect.

Which of the following statements is true about parentchild relationships in middle childhood?

When both parents are present, fathers engage in as much caregiving as mothers.

In middle childhood, the amount of time children spend with parents

decreases dramatically.

Which of the following is supported by research on sibling rivalry?

Sibling rivalry tends to be more frequent among siblings who are close in age.

Research demonstrates that only children __________ compared to children with siblings.

are higher in self-esteem and achievement motivation

Which of the following is an accurate statement about divorce rates?

About two-thirds of divorced parents marry again.

Which of the following statements is true about the immediate consequences of divorce?

Family conflict often rises in newly divorced households as parents try to settle disputes over children and possessions.

In the United States, the majority of single mothers with young children

live in poverty.

Noncustodial fathers who see their children only occasionally tend to take on a(n) __________ style of parenting.

permissive

Mr. and Mrs. Frishman recently divorced. Their 5-year-old son is likely to

blame himself for the marital breakup.

Which of the following is true about childrens temperament and sex differences in adjustment to parental divorce?

Boys active and noncompliant behaviors tend to increase in divorcing households where parental conflict and inconsistent discipline are common.

The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is

shielding the child from family conflict and using authoritative child rearing.

Research on the long-term consequences of divorce indicates that

most children show improved adjustment by two years after divorce.

Research shows that divorce mediation

increases cooperation in child rearing.

Jennifer and Joels children reside with Joel and see Jennifer on a fixed schedule. Both parents have an equal say in important decisions about their childrens upbringing. Which type of custodial arrangement do they have?

joint custody

According to research on blended families, which child is most likely to have adjustment problems when his or her mother remarries?

Selma, a 15-year-old girl

Marty, who has two children from a previous marriage, has just remarried and now has two stepchildren. Based on information in your text, you can anticipate that

Martys contact with his biological children will decline.

Children whose mothers enjoy their work outside the home and remain committed to parenting ___________ than children of stay-at-home mothers.

get better grades in school

Research shows that maternal employment

leads fathers to take on greater child-rearing responsibilities.

Part-time maternal employment and flexible work schedules are associated with

good child adjustment.

Which of the following is true about child care for school-age children?

Low-SES children who participate in after-care programs exceed their self-care counterparts in classroom work habits, academic achievement, and prosocial behavior.

Beginning in middle childhood, a common fear is

the possibility of personal harm.

Children in Western nations mention ___________ as the most common source of their fears.

exposure to negative information in the media

Often school phobia can be traced to

parental overprotection.

Elliott, age 11, is suddenly afraid to go to school. Which of the following is the best advice you can give to Elliotts parents?

Firmly insist that he return to school, and train him in how to cope with difficult situations.

Research on child sexual abuse indicates that

the abuser is most often a parent or someone the parent knows well.

Children who ____________ are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse.

live in homes with a constantly changing cast of characters

Goran is a child victim of war. Research shows that Goran is likely to experience

an increase in anxiety and depression.

Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, children in Public School 31 in Brooklyn, New York, unlike many war-traumatized children in the developing world,

received immediate intervention, which included a trauma curriculum.

Which of the following is true about the consequences of child sexual abuse?

Repeated sexual abuse is associated with central nervous system damage.

The best way to reduce the emotional trauma of child sexual abuse is to

prevent sexual abuse from continuing.

Which of the following statements about resilience is true?

Resilience enables children to use internal and external resources to cope with adversity.

Was among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents by writting child-rearing book

arnold gesell

Dr. Anodyne found a correlation of +.49 between illegal drug use and levels of adolescent delinquency. this correlation is

moderate to positive

__ brings together researchers from psychology, biology neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship betwen chages in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns

cognitive development theory

one limitation of debriefing is

young children often lack the cognitive skills to understand the reasons for deceptive procedures

which of the following is a personal characteristic that could offer protection from the damaging effects of early stressful life events?

musical talent

which of the following is an example of a non normative influence?

patty learned to speak spanish and french in college

according to __ theory, children learn primarily through modeling

social learning

in an experiment on the side effects of music versus acting lessons on intelligence, the independent variable would be the

type of lesson (music vs acting)

in a longitudinal study, __ effects when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical condition

cohort

behaviorism focuses on

stimuli and responses

In a longitudinal study, __________ effects occur when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions.

cohort

Developmental science is ___________ because it has grown through the combined efforts of people from many fields of study.

interdisciplinary

Within the ________________ view of development, new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.

discontinuous

Dr. Kostel believes that development takes place in stages. This belief is consistent with the _________ perspective.

discontinuous

G. Stanley Hall regarded development as a _____________ process.

maturational

A(n) _______________ design permits inferences about cause and effect.

experimental

One limitation of longitudinal research is that participants' performance may improve as a result of

practice effects

In a __________ design, investigators study the same group of participants repeatedly at different ages.

longitudinal

To examine whether depression is stable or changes with age, Dr. Bleu followed a group of children from age 8 to age 40. This is an example of a __________ design.

longitudinal

Dr. George predicted that positive reinforcement would increase prosocial behavior in preschoolers. Dr. George's prediction is an example of a

hypothesis

_________ are the most common type of multiple birth.

Fraternal twins

The sex of a baby is determined by whether

an X-bearing or a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum.

Which of the following countries has a higher infant death rate?

The United States

Characteristics that vary on a continuum among people, such as height, weight, or intelligence, are most likely determined by __________ inheritance.

polygenic

Rodlike structures called ______________ store and transmit genetic information.

chromosomes

The one allele that affects the child's characteristics is called

dominant

Contemporary researchers view the family as a(n) _____________, or network of interdependent relationships.

social system

Accumulating evidence reveals that the relationship between heredity and the environment is

bidirectional

In _____________ , sperm from a man whose wife is infertile are used to inseminate a woman, who is paid for her childbearing services.

surrogate motherhood

__________ is/are a major cause of the dramatic rise in multiple births in recent decades.

fertility drugs

Social Security and Medicare consume about ______ percent of the U.S. federal budget for the elderly.

96

One reason that public policies safeguarding children are slow to emerge is because

children cannot vote or speak out to protect their own interests

Dizygotic twins

are no more alike than ordinary siblings

Within every cell (except red blood cells) is a control center, or

nucleus

The communication process of ________________ can help couples understand genetic principles, genetic testing, and prevention of genetic disorders.

genetic counseling

If the alleles from both parents _________, the child is ___________.

differ, heterozygous

____________ halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells.

Meiosis

To detect problems before birth, doctors use

prenatal diagnostic methods

High levels of prenatal lead exposure are related to

prematurity, low birth weight, and brain damage

Theo and Monique are parents of a newborn baby. Which of the following statements about Theo's adjustment to parenthood is true?

At times, Theo may feel ambivalent toward the baby, who constantly demands Monique's attention

By the middle of the second trimester, the

new being has grown large enough that the mother can feel its movements

Dana is pregnant with her first child and wonders how much weight she should gain during the pregnancy. You should recommend a healthy diet that results in a weight gain of ______ pounds.

25 to 30

Some form of medication is used in ______ percent of U.S. births.

more than 80

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set