Path HIM Chapter 9, 10, 11

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The major hazard of a rubella infection affecting a young woman is:

congenital malformations in the fetus if a susceptible pregnant woman acquires the infection in the first trimester.

Which of the following statements regarding Down syndrome is INCORRECT?

Cells from an affected child reveal an extra sex chromatin body (Barr body) attached to the nuclear membrane of the cells.

What is the main application of amniocentesis?

Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities in a fetus carried by a woman over age 35

Which of the following is most likely to lead to congenital malformation or developmental disturbances in the developing fetus?

Heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy

A mother has given birth to an infant with cytomegalic inclusion disease; what does this indicate?

The mother has been previously infected with the cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the infection became activated during the pregnancy, or the mother acquired a CMV infection during her pregnancy.

What usually causes Down syndrome?

Fertilization of an ovum containing an abnormal number of chromosomes

Failure of chromosome separation during meiosis is called __________.

nondisjunction

Which of the following statements about the fragile X syndrome is INCORRECT?

There is no relationship between the number of triplet repeats and the severity of the mental deficiency.

Which of the following conditions is NOT an indication for amniocentesis?

Maternal age younger than 35 years

All of the following statements about chromosomal mosaicism are correct EXCEPT:

Mosaicism results from chromosome nondisjunction occurring in the ovum before fertilization.

A (An) __________ disease is one that is present at birth.

congenital

The presence of an extra chromosome in a cell is called a __________.

trisomy

Absence of a chromosome is called a __________.

monosomy

Chromosome deletion occurs when:

a chromosome breaks during meiosis and the broken piece is lost from the cell.

A misplaced chromosome or part of a chromosome attached to another chromosome is called a __________.

translocation

Reciprocal translocation occurs when:

a chromosome breaks during meiosis and the broken piece is lost from the cell.

A common abnormality in females, __________ syndrome results from an absence of one X chromosome.

Turner's

__________ syndrome occurs in males when there is an extra X chromosome.

Klinefelter's

__________ syndrome occurs in males when there is an extra Y chromosome.

XYY

The gene responsible for the fragile X syndrome is __________.

FMR1

__________ is caused by a deficiency of protein called antihemophilic globulin, which is required for normal blood coagulation.

Hemophilia

__________ is characterized by excessive absorption of iron, which accumulates within the body and disrupts organ functions.

Hemochromatosis

Most persons with Turner's syndrome have only a single X chromosome (45, X).

true

A pregnant woman with phenylketonuria does not need to adhere to a phenylalanine-restricted diet because the high concentration of phenylalanine in the woman's blood does not harm the fetus.

false

An increased concentration of alpha fetoprotein in maternal blood or amnionic fluid suggests that the fetus has Down syndrome.

false

Most infants with Down syndrome are born to mothers who are carriers of a chromosome 21, which is attached to another chromosome (translocation carrier).

false

A neural tube defect (anencephaly or spina bifida) can usually be identified in an affected fetus by mean of an ultrasound examination performed at about 16 weeks gestation.

false

The sex chromatin body (Barr body) represents an inactivated X chromosome and is only encountered in persons having two X chromosomes and lacking a Y chromosome.

false

Consumption of alcoholic beverages in pregnancy does not harm the fetus if the amount of alcohol consumed does not exceed 1 pint of liquor per day.

false

A structurally abnormal chromosome is called an autosome.

false

A translocation is an abnormal mitosis.

false

Nondisjunction occurs when homologous chromosomes in germ cells separate from one another in either the first or the second meiotic division.

false

The presence of one or more extra X chromosomes adversely affects female development.

false

Most embryos lacking an X chromosome are aborted spontaneously.

true

The most common autosomal trisomy seen in newborn infants is that of chromosome 13, which causes Down syndrome.

false

Cigarettes and alcoholic beverages do not harm the fetus.

false

If a mother tolerates a drug well, her fetus will, too.

false

A malignant tumor arising from glands within the lining of the uterus is a/an __________.

adenocarcinoma

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

The genome of the cells of many tumors is unstable, and the tumor cells may undergo additional mutations; however, such mutations do not affect the growth rate or other biologic properties of the tumor.

How does our immune system protect us from cancer?

It recognizes and destroys abnormal cells, which differ from normal cells.

Which of the following statements is correct?

Adjuvant chemotherapy attempts to destroy subclinical micrometastases that have already spread from the primary tumor.

Which of the following is a common method of treating a benign tumor?

Surgical excision

Which of these is a benign smooth muscle tumor of the uterus?

Myoma

A 25-year-old woman has an abnormal pap smear. What does this mean?

The genital tract is shedding abnormal cells and requires further investigation.

Which of the following statements regarding a dermoid cyst (benign cystic teratoma) of the ovary is INCORRECT?

Sometimes metastasizes to lungs and brain

Which of the following is a malignant tumor arising from pigment-producing cells of the skin?

Melanoma

Which of these is a benign tumor of fat cells?

Lipoma

Which of the following statements about tumors is true?

Tumors are the product of a mutation in a normal cell that causes that cell to grow and reproduce itself abnormally.

Choose the word or phrase below that best completes the following statement: Malignant tumor cells do not wear out and die as normal cells do, but instead they __________.

become immortal and proliferate indefinitely

Choose the answer below that best describes the difference between a carcinoma and a sarcoma.

A carcinoma arises from surface, glandular, or parenchymal epithelial tissues; a sarcoma arises from other primary tissues.

What is a neoplasm of blood cells?

Leukemia

Which of the following skin tumors is/are NOT malignant?

Keratosis

Over 80% of all lymphomas arise in __________.

B cells

Which of the following is true?

Some lymphomas may start out indolent and transform suddenly into a more aggressive tumor.

A metastatic tumor is one that:

has spread to a location way from its site of origin.

Conditions such as leukoplakia or lentigo maligna should be regarded as:

an indication that changes have occurred in tissue that could become cancerous if the site is left untreated.

Multiple myeloma differs from leukemia in the following EXCEPT:

Large number of neoplastic cells typically spill into the peripheral blood.

The malignant eye tumor retinoblastoma occurs primarily in older males.

false

Blood tests to detect most tumor-associated antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are used primarily as screening tests to detect malignant tumors in asymptomatic patients while the tumors are still small and easily curable by surgical treatment.

false

Classification of a lymphoma is based in part on its histologic structure and growth pattern, which provides prognostic information and serves as a guide to treatment.

true

In acute leukemia, the leukemic cells are mostly primitive cells, whereas in chronic leukemia, the leukemic cells are mostly mature cells.

true

Some chemotherapy drugs impede tumor cell growth by blocking growth factor receptors on the tumor cells so that the tumor cells are unable to respond to the growth factors that stimulate cells to divide.

true

Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic granulocytic leukemia can often be treated effectively by a drug that inhibits the hyperactive tyrosine kinase produced by the abnormal gene (bcr/abl) responsible for the granulocyte proliferation.

true

BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations often cause ovarian cancer.

true

Cancer is generally the result of a collection of genetic mutations or changes, not simply a mutation in one gene.

true

Any increase in carcinoembryonic antigen indicates that a tumor is present.

false

Graft versus host reaction represents a response of transplanted cells against the patient receiving the transplant.

true

Myelodysplastic syndromes represent the group of various blood malignancies.

false

Multiple myeloma is a neoplasm arising in neutrophils.

false

myelodysplastic syndromes

lentigo maligna

leukoplakia

papilloma virus infection

leukemia

melanoma

oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

cervical cancer

Proto-oncogene

Normal growth genes in human chromosomes that may mutate into cancer-causing genes

Mutation

An error in a gene that can alter the correct functioning of that gene in the cell

Cytologic diagnosis

Examination of tissue under a microscope to identify the presence and type of cancerous cells

Metastasis

The process by which malignant cells travel from their site of origin to establish tumors elsewhere in the body

Polyp

A benign tumor projecting from an epithelial surface that can sometimes precede malignancy

adeno

myo

neuro

hemangio

gland

muscle

nerve

blood vessels

lymphangio

chondro

osteo

lymph vessels

cartilage

bone

A 5-year-old male child has a bleeding disease that is characterized by areas of hemorrhage in the joints and muscles after minor injuries. Laboratory tests reveal a deficiency of a coagulation factor active in the early phase of blood coagulation (formation of intrinsic thromboplastin). What is the most likely diagnosis?

hemophilia

Which of the following statements regarding disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome is NOT true?

It is a frequent complication of pulmonary embolism.

__________
are small pinpoint areas of bleeding in the skin and deeper tissues resulting from leakage of blood through minute defects in the capillary endothelium.

Petechiae

Blood plasma contains several different proteins, called __________, which, when activated, interact to produce a blood clot.

coagulation factors

In phase 1 of the blood coagulation process, __________ is formed.

thromboplastin

In phase 2 of the blood coagulation process, __________ is converted into __________.

prothrombin; thrombin

In phase 3 of the blood coagulation process, __________ is converted into __________.

fibrinogen; fibrin

__________
dissolves fibrin in blood clots.

Plasmin

A decrease in platelets is called __________.

thrombocytopenia

Deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors often lead to large areas of hemorrhage called __________.

hematomas

The __________
time measures the time it takes for blood plasma to clot after adding a lipid substance and calcium to start the clotting process.

partial thromboplastin

The __________
time measures the time it takes for blood plasma to clot after adding a preparation of thromboplastin with calcium to start the coagulation.

prothrombin time

The __________
test bypasses the first two phases of blood coagulation and primarily measures the level of fibrinogen.

thrombin time

Which of the following statements about von Willebrand disease is NOT true?

It is characterized by episodes of hemorrhage in joints and internal organs after minor injury.

Many blood coagulation factors are produced in the liver, and their concentrations in the blood are reduced in patients with liver disease.

true

Thromboplastic material liberated from a dead fetus retained with the uterus may induce a hemorrhage state (disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome) in the mother.

true

The small blood vessels are the body's first line of defense.

true

Polymerized fibrin monomer molecules are joined end to end.

true

Thrombin is an enzyme that is not capable of digesting protein.

false

Coagulation factors restrict the clotting process to a limited area.

false

Blood will not clot in the absence of calcium.

true

Normally, small blood vessels expand after injury, helping to seal the defect by a blood clot.

false

In von Willebrand disease, bleeding almost always occurs in the joints.

false

Von Willebrand factor is required for platelets to adhere at the site of a vascular injury.

true

Thrombocytopenia is an excessively high number of platelets.

false

Hematomas are pin-point areas of hemorrhage.

false

Partial thromboplastin time measures the time it takes for blood plasma to clot after adding a lipid substance and calcium.

true

Coumadin acts by inhibiting with the production of vitamin K-dependent factors.

true

The constriction of small blood vessels following injury serves as the first line of defense against bleeding.

true

Vitamin K levels in the blood are reduced by bleeding.

false

Coagulation disturbance resulting from liver disease is corrected by the intramuscular injection of vitamin K.

false

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