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1. Psychologists who study personality focus on the

A. enduring traits and qualities we demonstrate over time.

2. ________ focus on the role of the unconscious mind in personality.

B. Psychodynamic theorists

3. If Freddie's id was in charge when his boss told him that he was an incompetent fool, Freddie might

C. punch his boss in the face.

4. According to Freud, the ego is referred to as a mediator because it

C. must balance the needs of the id, superego, and reality.

5. The spoiled child within you is to the id as the referee within you is to the

B. superego.

6. Kira finds an abandoned wallet with three hundred dollars in it and no identification. The decision to keep the money or
turn it in will cause the greatest conflict between the

D. id and the ego.

7. If Marcy is feeling guilty about lying to her mother, Freud would argue that her ________ is making her feel this way.

C. superego

8. Darin had an automobile accident in which his brother and another passenger were killed. Though Darin was not seriously
hurt in the accident, he cannot remember any of the accident details. Darin is unconsciously engaging in which ego defense

D. repression

9. Jeff experiences a lot of aggressive feelings toward his overprotective stepfather. Because he is powerless to aggress openly
against his stepfather, Jeff becomes a very aggressive forward on his basketball team. This is an example of

B. sublimation.

10. Oberon has always been fascinated by fire, but he knows that it can be dangerous and sometimes lethal. When he finished
high school, he decided to become a firefighter. The job is extremely fulfilling for him. Freud would probably say that Oberon's
fascination with fire

B. has been sublimated into a socially desirable behavior.

11. Blake secretly cheated on his girlfriend and now he is constantly accusing her of harboring desires for other people. What
defense mechanism is Blake using?

C. projection

12. Every time Antony, a 30-year-old architect, experiences hardship, he goes home to his parents to find comfort in his
childhood bedroom. What defense mechanism is in play here?

B. regression

13. What defense mechanism is being used when the ego transforms the unacceptable (e.g., looking at pornography) into the
acceptable (e.g., becoming a vocal advocate against pornography)?

D. reaction formation

14. If you had to write a research paper on ego defense mechanisms, which of the following would be the most appropriate
summary position?

C. The use of defense mechanisms can be beneficial to psychological health.

15. When Peter is not biting his nails, he is chewing on a pencil. Freud would argue that Peter is fixated at the ________ stage.

A. oral

16. According to Jung, the deepest, impersonal layer of the conscious mind that is shared by all humans is called the

C. collective unconscious.

17. According to Jung, the collective unconscious is expressed through

D. archetypes.

18. According to Alfred Adler, people are primarily motivated by

D. their desire to overcome perceived shortcomings.

19. What approach to personality assumes that human nature is basically good?

B. humanistic

20. Brittney is a counselor who believes that her clients have the innate ability to make good choices. She accepts each
individual as they are and as a person in the process of change. It is important to her that her clients learn to evaluate
themselves and not depend on the opinion of others. Brittney is practicing

D. humanistic counseling.

21. According to humanistic theory, a child who receives ________ from her parents is likely to avoid the problems associated
with ________.

D. unconditional positive regard; conditions of worth

22. According to Rogers, a child who experiences regular punishment from parents and is only rewarded for good behavior is
likely to develop knowledge of

B. conditions of worth; positive self-regard needs

23. Octavia enjoys being around others and is well-known for her social graces. She is warm and engaging with everyone she
meets regardless of whether the setting is the classroom, her workplace, a restaurant, or her own home. Since Octavia has a
fairly stable way of relating to other people, we can say that her behavior is probably

B. a manifestation of a personality trait.

24. Which of the following accurately describes how factor analysis is used to identify personality traits?

C. Factor analysis identifies which traits go together in terms of how they are rated.

25. Which is not one of the big five factors of personality discussed in your text?

D. empathy

26. According to the five-factor model of personality, a person who is anxious and insecure is high on

D. neuroticism.

27. According to the five-factor model of personality, which statement best describes the relationship between neuroticism
and emotion?

C. Neuroticism is related to feeling more negative mood.

28. According to the five-factor model of personality, a person who is reserved and quiet is low on

B. extraversion.

29. If all you know about a person is that she is liberal, smart, and tolerant, what trait is she likely high on?

D. openness

30. A person who is intellectual, imaginative, and has a broad range of interests would mostly likely score high on a measure

A. openness.

31. According to the five-factor model of personality, a person who is generous and altruistic is high on

D. agreeableness.

32. ________ theories stress the interaction of thought with social environments.

D. Social cognitive

33. According to ________, the person, the person's behavior, and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of
two-way causal links.

A. reciprocal determinism

34. Which of the following concepts is associated with Albert Bandura?

B. observational learning

35. DeShawn graduated from college with honors and approaches most aspects of life with the expectation that he will be
successful. He expects a great deal of himself and sets his goals high. After his interview for a job in the most prestigious
company in his state, he was convinced that he would get the job. You could say that he

D. has high self-efficacy.

36. Who would be most concerned about the explosion of violent video games that children are exposed to today?


37. Projective tests are most closely aligned with which perspective on personality?

D. psychodynamic

38. Dr. Crane is looking for a test that he can use to understand more about his clients' unconscious motivations. He could use
a(n) ________ measure.

C. projective

39. Vickie is doing a research paper on projective personality tests. What conclusions should she draw regarding the
Rorschach inkblot test?

D. Many psychologists have questioned the reliability and validity of the test.

40. A client is asked to look at a picture and to tell a story that describes what she thinks is happening in the picture. Her
therapist will use the content of the story to make inferences about the client's personality. The client is likely taking the

C. Thematic Apperception Test.

41. Which if the following is NOT considered one of the criteria for defining abnormal behavior?

C. unique behavior

42. If your roommate acts in a way that is unusual (i.e., deviant) and it interferes with her schoolwork (i.e., dysfunctional),
what would you need to know before deciding whether the behavior is abnormal?

D. nothing more - you have enough information to label her behavior as abnormal

43. Martin refuses to leave his house because he believes that his body odor is toxic to those around him. Martin's behavior is
an example of

A. statistical deviance.
B. personal distress.
C. a maladaptive behavior.
D. All of these

44. Marilyn is depressed a great deal of the time so she seeks help from a doctor. She is diagnosed as having a mental illness
caused by a chemical imbalance. Marilyn is most likely being treated by someone who adheres to the ________ model of
psychological disorders.

A. medical

45. According to the biopsychosocial model of psychological disorders, abnormal behavior can be influenced by

A. genes.
B. childhood experiences.
C. gender.
D. All of these.

46. Of the following factors, ________ is related to the highest rates of mental disorders.

A. low income

47. What is the name of the manual that psychologists use to classify mental disorders?


48. Anxiety disorders involve fears that are

A. uncontrollable.
B. disproportionate to the actual danger.
C. disruptive to ordinary life.
D. All of thes

49. Brad seems to be in a continuous state of anxiety though he is unable to identify the source of his feelings. The most likely
diagnosis for Brad is ________ disorder.

A. generalized anxiety

50. A deficiency in which neurotransmitter is linked to generalized anxiety disorder?


51. John has sudden attacks of intense fear in which his heart races, he feels faint, and he has trouble catching his breath.
During these attacks, he worries that he is going to die. From this description, it sounds like John has

C. panic disorder.

52. A fear becomes a phobia when a(n)

B. individual will go to any length to avoid the object of the fear/phobia.

53. Evan decided to take an F in English class rather than have to get up in front of the class to make an oral presentation. Evan
probably suffers from

D. a social phobia.

54. Oscar feels that if he does not circle his car five times before he gets in it, he will have an accident. The feeling that he is
going to have an accident represents a(n)

D. obsession.

55. All of the following are common compulsions EXCEPT

D. repeating phrases.

56. Evette believes that she must touch the door knob seven times before she opens the door so that her mother will not
become deathly ill. What is her compulsion?

B. touching the door knob

57. In movies that focus on war, soldiers who have returned from the frontlines often struggle with overwhelming anxiety,
nervousness, depression, and flashbacks. In many cases, the soldiers have problems with memory and an inability to
experience happiness. These movie characters are most likely experiencing ________ disorder.

B. post-traumatic stress

58. Mood disorders can include a disturbance in all of the following areas EXCEPT

D. cultural identity.

59. What cognitive attribution style can serve as a protective factor against depression?

C. optimism

60. An optimistic attribution style has been related to ________ levels of depression and ________ risk of suicide.

D. lower; decreased

61. Eeyore, the despondent and downcast donkey in A.A. Milne's "Winnie the Pooh", is chronically morose but not so sad that
he cannot function. For example, when Pooh says, "Good morning, Eeyore," Eeyore gloomily replies, "Good morning, Pooh
Bear, if it is a good morning, which I doubt." Eeyore may have ________ disorder.

A. dysthymic

62. Joshua has received low grades in math throughout his school years. In the lower grades, he would study hard, but the
results were always the same. Eventually, he stopped trying to do better in math because nothing seemed to work. Joshua has

A. learned helplessness.

63. Which psychological approach would attribute a person's depression to escalating negative and self-defeating thoughts?

D. cognitive

64. Your roommate is acting very strangely. Although she has not slept much in the past few days, she says she is on top of the
world. She has cleaned and re-cleaned her closets several times. She has invested in a questionable financial venture. This
period of non-stop activity has lasted for well over a week and is in sharp contrast to the depression and fatigue she exhibited
in the previous semester. The DSM-IV diagnosis would most likely be

A. bipolar disorder.

65. Dora has been up for two straight days remodeling her bathroom. She has not eaten or taken a break and is still full of
energy. Dora may be exhibiting a

B. manic episode.

66. The difference between dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue is the

D. tendency to run away.

67. One possible reason for the increase in the number of reported cases of dissociative identity disorder is

C. social contagion.

68. When driving to work, Darren believes that he is receiving a secret message from the government through his car radio. He spends most of his days trying to warn others about an impending invasion from outer space that the voice on his radio has
been telling him about. Darren is most likely suffering from

D. schizophrenia.

69. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include all of the following EXCEPT

C. social withdrawal.

70. Jeremy, who is suffering from schizophrenia, "tastes" poison in every meal that his mom makes for him. Jeremy is

A. delusions.

71. Which of the following is a negative symptom of schizophrenia?

B. a flat affect.

72. The diathesis-stress model argues that schizophrenia occurs due to ________ and stress.

A. biogenetic disposition

73. Which of the following is a necessary criterion for a diagnosis of personality disorder?

A. chronic maladaptive behavior

74. Which of the following psychological disorders is the most common in the United States?


Which of the following psychological disorders is the LEAST common in the United States?


In 1973, Rosenhan performed a study in which eight healthy adults were committed to a psychiatric hospital. What did this
study demonstrate?

C. Being labeled with a mental disorder changes the way mental health professionals deal with you.

77. The group of drugs known as SSRIs work primarily by interfering with the reabsorption of ________ in the brain.

D. serotonin

78. Lithium is considered an effective ________ drug.

D. mood-stabilizing

79. Psychotherapeutic drugs are primarily used to treat

A. anxiety disorders.
B. mood disorders.
C. schizophrenia.
D. All of these.

80. Ivan is very depressed and the danger of suicide is imminent. He is not responding to the drugs normally employed to treat
depression. Which of the following treatments is most likely to prove helpful in rapidly reducing Ivan's depression and suicidal

B. electroconvulsive therapy

81. From Freud's psychodynamic perspective, what is the best way to gain insight into a person's core problems?

B. bring unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness

82. "My client must confront the conflicts which are left over from childhood and gain release from this burdening anxiety."
This statement would likely be made by a psychologist who practices ________ therapy.

A. psychodynamic

83. The main goal of psychoanalysis is to

B. provide clients with insight into their unconscious conflicts.

84. According to the psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy, which of the following is an essential part of the job of a

D. interpret the disguised revelations of the unconscious mind

85. According to Freud, getting people to talk freely

C. allows their deepest thoughts to emerge.

86. Your psychotherapist asks you to use free association. You are being asked to

C. just talk in an undirected manner without reflecting on what you are about to say.

87. Catharsis is a term used to describe

C. a release of emotional tension.

88. After several months in psychoanalysis, Ryan had an emotional outburst during which he cried and sobbed as he talked
about a childhood experience. Freud termed this emotional release

B. catharsis.

89. James dreamed that he went to his neighbor's house at midnight and made himself a sandwich. His psychoanalyst
interpreted the dream to mean that James really wanted to go to bed with his neighbor's wife. Making the sandwich was the
________ content of the dream.

B. manifest

90. According to Freudian dream interpretation, the obvious content of a person's dream hides the ________ content.

C. latent

91. In psychoanalytic theory, transference is used to describe

B. how the client comes to relate to the therapist in ways that resemble his or her other relationships.

92. When resistance occurs in therapy, what event is taking place?

C. The client is using unconscious defense strategies that prevent progress.

93. Which of the following is NOT one of the methods used in traditional psychoanalysis?

D. reflective listening

94. Mary has been working with a therapist because she has felt very confused and unsure about herself for the past few years.
Mary's therapist tends to be very non-directive and devotes a great deal of the session to allowing Mary to explore her identity,
wants, and dreams for the future. The therapist rarely gives direct advice and instead is primarily interested in helping Mary
clarify her own ideas and feelings. Mary's therapist is most likely associated with the ________ perspective of psychotherapy.

C. humanistic

95. You are a humanistic therapist. A potential client is unfamiliar with your school of therapy and asks you to sum it up for
him. You tell him the primary tenet of humanistic therapy is that

A. individuals possess self-healing capacities.

96. Which of the following is NOT an element recognized by Rogers as one that is essential for human growth?

B. intelligence

97. Which of the following persons is engaging in reflective speech?

B. Tabitha - after listening to Gus talk about his frustration with his boss, she tells him that it sounds like he is facing obstacles
at work.

98. Which of the following is considered an insight therapy?

B. client-centered approach

99. Two key assumptions of the ________ approach to therapy are that psychological disorders are learned in exactly the same
way as normal behaviors are and that they can be treated by applying the basic principles of learning.

D. behavioral

100. "First, I would like you to get in a comfortable position and begin the breathing techniques which we have been
practicing. When you sense that you have arrived at complete relaxation, we will proceed." This therapist is initiating

B. systematic desensitization.

101. The first step in systematic desensitization is

D. discussing aspects of the feared situation that are most frightening.

102. The second step in systematic desensitization is

A. putting the list of fears in order of severity.

103. Frank has been seeing a therapist about his spider phobia. The therapist first asked Frank to describe what it is about
spiders that frightens him and these fears were then put in order from least to most frightening. The therapist then taught
Frank muscle relaxation, and finally Frank was exposed to a series of increasingly fearful stimuli. Frank has been seeing a
therapist who uses

B. systematic desensitization.

104. Jan is afraid of crowds. If her therapist uses the flooding technique, which of the following will Jan most likely be asked to

C. attend a sold-out rock concert with no way home until after the concert

105. Ann has a spider phobia. During her first therapy session, her therapist plans to expose Ann to live spiders for the whole
50-minute session. Her therapist is going to use the technique called

C. flooding.

106. If a therapist gives Henry, who is suffering from alcoholism, a drink laced with a nausea-inducing drug so that he will
become ill after drinking the alcohol, the therapist is using

B. aversive conditioning.

107. All of the following are examples of therapy procedures derived directly from the principles of classical conditioning


108. The therapy that is based on the assumption that abnormal behavior is due to self-defeating and irrational beliefs is

B. cognitive therapy.

109. Someone who uses cognitive restructuring believes that ________ are the causes of abnormal behavior.

B. irrational beliefs

110. Pete's therapist says, "Don't say you will never fall in love again, say it will be difficult to learn to trust someone again."
The therapist is utilizing ________ in his efforts to help Pete.

B. cognitive restructuring

111. ________ is an example of a cognitive therapy.

D. Rational-emotive therapy

112. Dr. Tetris is a rational-emotive therapist speaking to a group of introductory psychology students. Which of the following
would likely be his summary statement?

D. "Our unrealistic beliefs cause many emotional problems."

113. Beck's cognitive therapy focuses on

A. eliminating illogical and self-defeating thoughts.

114. A major advantage to group therapy is that clients

A. have more opportunity to develop social skills.

115. In family therapy, it is assumed that the

C. problem originates in the interactions among the family members.

116. Deinstitutionalization involves


117. Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy has found that

A. no one form of psychotherapy works better than any other.
B. psychotherapy is significantly more effective than a placebo control intervention.
C. the likelihood of clinical improvement increases as the number of therapy sessions increases.
D. All of these.

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