Social Psychology 11-13

Created by clarames320 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Hatfield and her colleagues (1966) matched University of Minnesota freshmen for a Welcome Week dance. When the students were asked to evaluate their dates, what determined whether they liked each other?

physical attractiveness

All of the following are examples of implicit egotism EXCEPT

we want to name our children using family names.

You are a regular contributor to an Internet chat room. One day the other participants seem to ignore every comment you make. Research suggests you will likely

experience stress and a depressed mood.

The contrast effect of feeling less attractive after viewing a super attractive person applies to our self-perceptions, especially for

women

After learning about a former co-worker who recently passed away due to cancer, you call a loved one. This is an example of how reminders of death

heighten our need to belong.

The tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner is referred to as

disclosure reciprocity.

According to the text, the first step in scientifically studying romantic love is to

define and measure it.

The relationship between our degree of self-awareness and our willingness to help is

positive.

Social-exchange is a _______ theory, while social norms is a _______ theory.

psychological; sociological

If victims seem to have created their own problems by laziness or lack of foresight, people are less willing to offer help. Helping responses are thus closely tied to

attributions.

According to the social-exchange theory, the rewards that motivate helping are

internal or external.

When faced with potentially dangerous situations where strangers need help,

men help most.

According to the social-exchange theory, we use a _______ strategy in deciding when and whether to help others.

minimax

Altruism is to _______ as egoism is to _______.

another's welfare; one's own welfare

Attempting to explain one's own behavior situationally is a characteristic of

both dilemmas

In a small group, as opposed to large ones, individuals are

less likely to take more than their equal share

Ralph White reviewed ten wars from the last century and reported that each was marked by at least one misperception. Which of the following was NOT on this list?

overestimating the leaders' power

When considering reactions to a common external threat, approval of President Bush's performance after September 11, 2001

increased.

The U.S. Supreme Court's 2003 decision that racial diversity may be a criterion in admissions to colleges and universities was

based on research findings that revealed that racial diversity in the classroom has positive consequences.

When both sides of a conflict believe "we are peace-loving - they are hostile," each may treat the other in ways that _____ expectations.

confirm

According to Elliot Aronson, "as a relationship ripens toward greater intimacy, what becomes increasingly important is ___________."

authenticity

In an experiment by Zajonc and his colleagues, participants were exposed to brief novel passages of music while they focused their attention on other tasks. Results indicated that mere exposure led to liking

even when people were unaware of what they had been exposed to.

Kenrick and his colleagues (1989) found that to men who have recently been viewing a television show featuring three beautiful women, average women seem _______ attractive, confirming the _______.

less; contrast effect

One national survey found that 86 percent of those who were unhappily married but who stayed with the marriage, were, when re-interviewed five years later,

mostly "very" or "quite" happy.

Hatfield gave university women evaluations, affirming the self-esteem of some and wounding others with negative evaluations. Each participant was then asked to evaluate a man who had earlier asked her for a date. Women whose evaluations had been _______ expressed _______ the man.

negative; more liking of

In a survey of college-age individuals, Buston and Emlen (2003) reported that the desire for _______ mates far outweighed the desire for _______ mates.

similar; beautiful

Schafer and Keith (1980) conducted surveys of several hundred married couples and found that spouses who perceived inequity in their marriage felt more

distressed and depressed.

Latané and Darley (1968) had university students complete questionnaires in a small room, and then had smoke pour into the room from a wall vent. Students who were working _______ tended to notice the smoke in _______.

alone; less than five seconds.

In observing people's responses to staged emergencies, Darley and Latané (1970) found that _______ greatly decreased intervention.

the presence of other bystanders

According to the text, the _______ of altruism propose(s) two types of prosocial behavior: a tit-for-tat reciprocal exchange and a more unconditional, intrinsic helpfulness.

social norms, social-exchange, and evolutionary theories

The motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests defines

altruism

_______ are twice as likely as _______ to seek medical and psychiatric help.

Women ; men

People are more likely to help another person if

they expect to see them again.

Which of the following is an effective way to increase helping behavior?

model prosocial behavior

According to Slavin (2003), a "practical, proven method for implementing contact theory in the desegregated classroom," is

cooperative learning

According to Staub and Bar-Tal (2003) all of the following are characteristics of a group in intractable conflict EXCEPT the group that

attributes similar characteristics to the other group.

Studies from eleven countries show adolescents have more positive peer relationships and may achieve more when working _____, rather than _____.

cooperatively; competitively

_______ occurs when a neutral third party attempts to facilitate communication and offer suggestions for how to resolve a conflict.

mediation

The misperceptions of those who are in conflict with each other, such as two nations who regard each other with suspicion and hostility, are usually

mutual

Those involved in relationships marked by long-term equity

are unconcerned with short-term equity.

_____ rank attractiveness as important in a mate, while _____ assign importance to honesty, humor, and dependability.

Men; women

"Negative information carries more weight because being less usual, it grabs more attention." This statement is an example of the

bad is stronger than good principle

Which group is most likely to report their lives as being "very happy"?

those who are married

Melanie believes that her boyfriend enjoys far more benefits from their relationship than she does, even though she invests more time, effort, and resources. Clearly, Melanie believes that her relationship with her boyfriend lacks

equity

You are asked to participate in a blood drive. In thinking about doing so, you weigh the costs (e.g., being pricked by a needle) and benefits (e.g., feeling good about yourself) of doing so. This strategy can be predicted by the

social-exchange theory

In an enactment of the Good Samaritan situation, Darley and Batson (1973) studied the helpfulness of Princeton seminarians in order to assess whether helping behavior was influenced by

time pressures

Research on the relationship between personality traits and helping behavior revealed that

the person and the situation interact to predict helping.

Mr. Lemming's neighbors mowed his lawn, but he was too sick and weak to reciprocate. We can predict that Mr. Lemming may feel

demeaned because he cannot reciprocate.

_____ were most closely associated with other forms of civic involvement, like voting, jury service, community projects, and giving to charity.

Members in religious groups

The idea that altruism towards one's close relatives enhances the survival of mutually shared genes is referred to as

kin selection

Latané and Darley attempted to explain people's failure to intervene in cases like that of Kitty Genovese, a woman who was violently attacked, in terms of

situational influences

Mio (1993) and her colleagues found that after reading about the commons dilemma, theater patrons

littered less

Peace us defined as

the outcome of creatively managed conflict

Sato (1987) gave Japanese students opportunities to harvest trees in a simulated forest for money. When the students equally shared the costs of planting the forest, the result was that

most of the trees were harvested before they had grown to the most profitable size.

Studies from eleven countries show adolescents have more positive peer relationships and may achieve more when working _____, rather than _____.

cooperatively; competitively

In the Prisoner's Dilemma, if both prisoners confess, each will get a _______; if neither confesses, each will _______.

moderate sentence; get a light sentence

If you are new in the office and want to make new friends, your best bet is to get a desk

near where people hang out

Each year Canada and the United States record _____ divorce/s for every _____ marriage/s.

1;2

Social ostracism evokes a brain response similar to that triggered by

physical pain

Darley and Berscheid (1967) gave university women ambiguous information about two other women. Asked how much they liked these people, the participants reported feeling more attracted to the person whom they

expected they would eventually meet

Which is NOT one of the three ways people cope with a failing relationship, according to Rusbult and her colleagues?

denial, denying the problem exists

Mary, a talkative, extraverted young woman, is strongly attracted to Shane, a quiet, introverted, middle-aged man. Mary's attraction to Shane would be predicted by the

complementarity hypothesis

Which of your friends is most likely to report a preference for a mate who is homely and warm over one who is attractive and cold?

your best friend Carol

According to the text, an attribution of an uncontrollable predicament (such as a family crisis or natural disaster) is likely to encourage _______ to help.

political conservatives

The fact that a person is less likely to help in an emergency when other people are present is called

the bystander effect

A person who is intensely self-focused in profound grief would

be less likely to help others

Which of the following statements is NOT true? As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, any given bystander is

less likely to walk away

Helping _______ a bad mood and _______ a good mood.

softens;sustains

Evolutionary psychology contends that the essence of life is

gene survival

Gurin and her colleagues (2002) found that informal interactions enabled by ethnic diversity in college classrooms

tend to foster greater acceptance of difference among ethnic groups

_______ occurs when conflicted parties seek an agreement through direct negotiation.

bargaining

What do self-serving biases, group polarization, and negative stereotypes have in common?

They are potential seed of misperception

One aspect of mirror-image perception is that one side tends to

exaggerate its differences from its adversaries

According to Phinney (1990), someone who identifies with both his or her ethnic culture and the larger culture is said to have a _______ identity.

bicultural

Which of the following is cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?

communication

In Rubin's research, "strong-love" couples differed from "weak-love" couples in that they

gazed more into each other's eyes

Kalick (1977) had Harvard students indicate their impressions of eight women, judging from photos taken before or after cosmetic surgery, and found that

post-surgery women were judged to be kinder and more likable.

Which statement is NOT true?

Humans in only some cultures use ostracism to regulate behavior.

According to the text, the relationship between the extent to which we are in love with someone and how physically attractive we find that person to be is

positive

Research suggests that randomly assigned college roommates

will most likely become friends

University students were more willing to make a charity pledge when

it was for someone who had bought them candy

Myers suggests that there are a number of reasons why individuals who live in big cities tend to be less helpful. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons?

They become cold and uncaring after living in a city

Batson believes that true altruism does exist in feelings of sympathy and compassion for others. Which is NOT an example of genuine altruism?

Helping others by giving to a charity that supports an issue we think is really important

Darley and Batson (1973) gave Princeton seminary students time to think about a talk that they were about to have recorded, and then sent them to the recording studio. Participants who had been _______ were most likely to stop and offer aid to a "victim" they encountered en route to the recording studio.

given extra time to reach the studio

Which one of the following is an example of a non-zero-sum game?

both the Prisoner's and Commons Dilemmas

In order for contact between opposing racial groups to reduce conflict, the contact must

be structured to confer equal status on both races.

Conflict is defined as

perceived incompatibility of actions of goals.

In times of tension, such as during an international crisis,

views of the opposing side become more simplistic.

A motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions is the definition of

A need to belong

Williams and his colleagues (2001) found that when ostracized during an online Frisbee-like game, players were _______ to conform to others' wrong judgments on a subsequent perceptual task.

somewhat likely

Research indicates that friendships and romantic relationships that form on the Internet are more likely than in-person relationships to

last at least two years

Seven in ten infants exhibit _______ attachment.

secure

In terms of adult attachment styles, _______ individuals seem to be possessive and jealous, while _______ individuals are less invested in relationships and more likely to leave them.

preoccupied; dismissive

You were walking down the street with your friend Sabrina when she stopped to ask a child why he was crying. The boy said that he was lost, so Sabrina took time out of her busy day to help the child find his way home. Sabrina's behavior can be characterized by

altruism

The notion of egoism maintains that

self-interest motivates all behavior.

When faced with potentially dangerous situations where strangers need help,

men help most

A major weakness of the social-exchange theory is that it

easily degenerates into explaining-by-naming

We tend to help more often when

we have just observed someone else helping.

According to the evolutionary theory, genetic selfishness predisposes us to helping based on

reciprocity

In the commons dilemma, people often consume more than they realize when

resources are not partitioned

One potential way to prevent conflict is to

avoid making excess regulations.

If an attorney creates a Prisoner-like Dilemma for two suspects, the attorney's goal is to

create an incentive for both of them to confess privately.

Esses and his colleagues (2004) found that competition breeds conflict when

people perceive that resources are limited and available on a non-zero-sum basis.

When considering reactions to a common external threat, approval of President Bush's performance after September 11, 2001

increased.

Which of the following is NOT one of the four C's of peacemaking identified in the text?

correction

Paula has just arrived as a new student on campus and does not know anyone. All else being equal, is she most likely to become friends with Joni who lives next door, with Kristy who lives two doors down, with Beth who lives three doors down, or with Heidi who lives in the room directly above hers?

Joni

Which theory provides the best explanation for the effects of proximity, similarity, and attractiveness on liking?

reward theory

Studies on computer composites of faces show that

perfectly average is quite attractive.

When we have no strong feelings about a product or person ______ increases sales and votes.

repetition

We like people with whom we associate good feelings. This fact is consistent with the ___________ theory of attraction.

reward

Which one of the following is NOT one of the ways that Myers suggests to increase social altruism?

learn about egoism

In McMillen and Austin's research (1971), participants who had lied were more likely to

volunteer a large amount of time

You are asked to participate in a blood drive. In thinking about doing so, you weigh the costs (e.g., being pricked by a needle) and benefits (e.g., feeling good about yourself) of doing so. This strategy can be predicted by the

social-exchange theory

As Sherif noted, despite the fact that the competitive behavior of the boys in the warring camps seemed "wicked, disturbed, and vicious," what actually triggered their evil behavior was

an evil situation

David and Julie fought over what to name their new puppy, until finally they went to their children for a decision. David and Julie relied on _______ to resolve their conflict.

arbitration

In order for contact between opposing racial groups to reduce conflict, the contact must

be structured to confer equal status on both races

In order for contact between opposing racial groups to reduce conflict, the contact must

competition between the groups was introduced

What does your text refer to as the "golden rule" of social justice?

"Whoever has the gold makes the rules."

Mediators seek to establish _______ agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit.

integrative

Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?

competition

_______ occurs when a neutral third party studies a conflict and imposes a settlement.

Arbitration

The communitarian synthesis emphasizes

both individualist and collectivist values

In both the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Commons Dilemma, people are tempted to explain their own behavior _______ and others' behavior _______.

situationally; dispositionally

What principle or concept suggests that rewarding people for their helpfulness may, in the long run, undermine their self-motivated altruism?

the overjustification effect

The fact that a person is less likely to help in an emergency when other people are present is called

the bystander effect

A person who is intensely self-focused in profound grief would

be less likely to help others.

Solomon and Solomon (1978) found that bystanders who _______ were more likely to offer aid to a person.

identified themselves to one another by name and age

You trip over a fallen branch and sprain your ankle. According to research on the bystander effect, a stranger who sees your plight will be most likely to offer aid if there are _______ others present.

no

Before agreeing to help out at the local homeless shelter, Sharon weighs the costs (e.g., getting up at dawn) and benefits (e.g., feeling good about herself) of doing so. This strategy can be predicted by the

social-exchange theory.

Miller and his colleagues (2001) reported that we are more empathic and helpful towards those who are _______ us.

similar to

In research conducted at the University of Warsaw, Lewicki (1985) asked students to choose which person in two photographs looked friendlier. Lewicki found that their choices were almost always influenced by whether or not the photographs

reminded them of friendly or unfriendly experimenters.

When two sides have clashing perceptions, at least one of them is misperceiving the other, and when that is the case, according to Bronfenbrenner (1961), "It is characteristic of such images that they are _______."

self-confirming

Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic that conflict expert Deutsch (1993) advises negotiators to exhibit?

sympathy

A goal that overrides people's differences from one another is called a(n)

superordinate goal.

John believes that he is hardworking and that his wife Rachel is lazy. Rachel believes that she is hardworking and that John is lazy. This is an example of

mirror-image perception.

Before they married, Melinda and Michael, who are both employed full time and collect the same pay, agreed to share equally in routine household tasks such as cleaning and grocery shopping. In reality, Melinda is now doing about 80 percent of the household work. This situation is an example of

an inequitable relationship.

When Bush called Iraq "evil" in the buildup to the invasion, he was making which common misperception?

demonizing the enemy

Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Darley and Latané's decision tree?

weighing the costs and benefits of helping

Pedestrians who are more likely to help another pedestrian pick up a dropped envelope are those who

just had their photograph taken.

Social-exchange is a _______ theory, while social norms is a _______ theory.

psychological; sociological

The notion that humans interact in such a way as to minimize costs and maximize rewards to the self is referred to as

the social-exchange theory.

Williams and his colleagues (2001) found that when ostracized during an online Frisbee-like game, players were _______ to conform to others' wrong judgments on a subsequent perceptual task.

somewhat likely

_______ includes strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another's favor.

Ingratiation

When benefits are proportional to contributions in a relationship,

equity exists.

The tendency for opposites to mate or marry

has never been reliably demonstrated.

Self-disclosure involves

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.

Rodney and Ralph are twin brothers who each contributed $75 to purchase a new bicycle. Rodney rides it 75 percent of the time. This would be an example of

an inequitable relationship.

Triandis (1994) reported that _______ immigrants felt more comfortable identifying with their ethnicity than _______ immigrants.

grandchildren of; second-generation

Which of the following statements is NOT true? As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, any given bystander is

less likely to walk away.

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set