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A bureaucracy is a (an)
Select one:
a. two-member group.
b. organization established on the basis of common interest whose members volunteer or even pay to participate.
c. component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency.
d. small group in which there is little intimacy or mutual understanding and in which relationships are impersonal.

c

Ascribed statuses may be based on an individual's
Select one:
a. gender.
b. all of these
c. race.
d. age.

b

Philip Zimbardo's study of a simulated prison environment that used college students as prisoners and prison guards
Select one:
a. demonstrated that a social structure can influence the type of social interactions that occur.
b. all of these
c. indicated that social interactions are not influenced by social structure characteristics.
d. indicated that it is impossible to replicate a "real life" situation in a laboratory.

a

The conflict view holds that social institutions
Select one:
a. maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and groups within a society.
b. train personnel equitably.
c. provide and maintain a sense of basic fairness.
d. preserve order and equality.

a

Which of the following is an ascribed status?
Select one:
a. a major league baseball player
b. a South African
c. a corporation president
d. all of these

b

3A primary group is a small group that is
Select one:
a. used as a standard for evaluating oneself and one's behavior.
c. characterized by impersonality and face-to-face associations.
d. characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.

...

A group to which people feel they do not belong is called a (an)
Select one:
a. primary group.
b. social network.
c. reference group.
d. out-group.

d

Which of the following is true regarding marriage in Japan?
Select one:
a. husbands say "I love you" more often than other nationalities
b. most husbands do not call their wife by name
c. most married Japanese couples do not actually love one another
d. marriage is considered more a relationship than a social status

b

A (an) __________ is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who regularly and consciously interact.
Select one:
a. organic solidarity
b. aggregate
c. negotiation team
d. group

d

Which of these comments about a bureaucracy is correct?
Select one:
a. An organization's written rules and regulations have the negative consequence of leading to goal displacement.
b. The division of labor has the positive consequence of producing efficiency in large-scale organizations.
c. The hierarchy of authority has the negative consequence for the individual of depriving employees of a voice in decision making.
d. all of these

d

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that social roles contribute to a society's stability by enabling members to anticipate the behavior of others and to pattern their own actions accordingly?
Select one:
a. functionalist perspective
b. feminist perspective
c. conflict perspective
d. interactionist perspective

a

Which term is used by sociologists to refer to a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status?
Select one:
a. achieved role
b. structural role
c. social role
d. ascribed role

c

Proper behavior for the in-group is often viewed as unacceptable behavior for the out-group. Sociologist Robert Merton describes this process as the conversion of "in-group virtues" into
Select one:
a. "out-group virtues."
b. "in-group vices."
c. "out-group vices."
d. goal displacement.

c

A master status is a
Select one:
a. status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position within society.
b. social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
c. series of social relationships linking a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.
d. term used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society.

a

An achieved status is a social position
Select one:
a. "assigned" to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics.
b. given to an individual based upon his or her age, race, or gender.
c. assigned to an individual at birth.
d. attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.

d

Which term is used to refer to incompatible expectations that arise when the same person holds two or more social positions?
Select one:
a. role ambiguity
b. role exit
c. role conflict
d. role strain

c

The distinction between "in-groups" and "out-groups" was first made by
Select one:
a. Erving Goffman.
b. Philip Zimbardo.
c. William Graham Sumner.
d. Charles Horton Cooley.

c

Role exit is defined as
Select one:
a. a difficulty that occurs when incompatible expectations arise within one social position occupied by an individual.
b. a set of expectations of people who occupy a given social position.
c. the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity and the re-establishment of an identity in a new role.
d. a difficulty that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.

c

Which sociological perspective would view that the longer labor union leaders are in office, the more concerned they are with maintaining their own positions and power, and they become less responsive to the needs of the rank and file members?
Select one:
a. interactionists
b. functionalists
c. conflict theorists
d. structuralists

c

A social network is
Select one:
a. an attempt to reach agreement with others concerning some objective.
b. a social structure that derives its existence from the social interactions through which people define and redefine its character.
c. a series of social relationships that link a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.
d. the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.

c

Which of the following is most likely to be a secondary group?
Select one:
a. the members of a small weekly seminar class in cultural diversity
b. the members of a small commune in Idaho
c. the members of the United Nations General Assembly
d. all of these

c

The 2004 Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal brought new relevance to the prison experiments conducted using college students in the 1970s.
Select one:
a. False
b. True

b

The merger of media giants such as AOL and Time Warner, along with the network holdings of Walt Disney, are all prime examples of
Select one:
a. media concentration.
b. social networks.
d. promotional diffusion.

...

Among the major sociological perspectives of functionalism, conflict theory, interactionism, and the feminist perspective, conflict theorists would be most likely to suggest that the mass media serve a useful function in society by bringing members together in a collective experience.
Select one:
a. True
b. False

b

What is the term used to describe the set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests?
Select one:
a. the dominant ideology
b. the narcotizing dysfunction
c. gatekeeping
d. the surveillance function

a

Which of the following is a socially constructed entity?
Select one:
a. Disney
b. all of these
c. Polaroid
d. Hallmark

b

Globalization of the dominant ideology has weakened the dominating reach of the U.S. into the rest of the world.
Select one:
a. False
b. True

a

The term "screen time" refers to the amount of time people spend
Select one:
a. all of these
b. on the Internet.
c. playing video games.
d. watching TV.

a

What were the primary media vehicles by which people bonded in the U.S. during, and in the aftermath of, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001?
Select one:
a. Internet and television
b. newspapers and television
c. television and phones
d. phones and Internet

c

Realistic portrayals of minorities and working-class persons tend to be ignored by mass media decision-makers primarily because
Select one:
a. most decisions are driven by Nielsen ratings.
b. most decisions are made overwhelmingly by wealthy White males.
c. minorities and working-class people feel ashamed of their social position.
d. viewers only enjoy fantasizing about being rich and powerful.

b

Disney is a good example of a multinational media corporation who represents today's market concentration and consolidation. They own 16 television channels which reach
Select one:
a. 140 countries.
b. 55 countries.
c. 20 countries.
d. 95 countries.

a

In the U.S., one out of every four women is considered obese. How many characters are portrayed as obese on television?
Select one:
a. 20 out of 100
b. 30 out of 100
c. less than 1 out of 100
d. 3 out of 100

d

Specialized targeting of audiences is to some degree driven by
Select one:
a. viewer interest.
b. Nielson ratings.
c. cable executives.
d. advertising.

d

Which sociological perspective is more likely to study the media's influence on society from the microlevel to determine how social behavior is shaped?
Select one:
a. interactionist perspective
b. conflict perspective
c. feminist perspective
d. functionalist perspective

a

The media often reaffirm proper behavior by showing what happens to people who violate social expectations.
Select one:
a. False
b. True

b

The narcotizing dysfunction can desensitize an audience to suffering, and can influence the degree to which that audience might conclude that a solution to a crisis has already been found.
Select one:
a. True
b. False

a

Which of the following statements is not correct?
Select one:
a. Massive amounts of information tend to numb and desensitize an audience.
b. Paul Lazarsfeld and Robert Merton created the term "narcotizing dysfunction."
d. The narcotizing dysfunction of the media was discovered in the 1980s after the deluge of cable news programming.

...

The creation of unreliable generalizations that distort the reality of persons, groups, and cultures is indicative of
Select one:
a. the narcotizing dysfunction.
b. posture enabling.
c. the surveillance function.
d. stereotyping.

d

Twenty-two percent of viewers who watch the Super Bowl do so only for the commercials.
Select one:
a. False
b. True

a

Worldwide, low-income groups, racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries have far less access than others to the latest technologies. This gap is referred to as the
Select one:
a. digital world.
b. digital dam.
c. digital enclosure.
d. digital divide.

d

A person who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication is referred to as a (an)
Select one:
a. opinion leader.
b. specialist.
c. concentrator.
d. gatekeeper.

a

Which sociological perspective is most likely to be concerned with television distorting gender roles and stereotyping, which is often rooted in the media's willingness to promote more traditional views?
Select one:
a. conflict perspective
b. feminist perspective
c. functionalist perspective
d. interactionist perspective

b

Schaefer notes that ____________ is (are) a significant exception to the centralization and concentration of the media.
Select one:
a. libraries
b. the Internet
c. network television
d. newspapers

b

Which of the following would the functionalist perspective most likely view as creating the greatest collective experience?
Select one:
a. a person exercising in a public park
b. the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001
c. police arresting a shoplifter
d. a college student studying quietly in the library

b

According to Howard Becker, labeling theory was conceived as a sole explanation for deviance.
Select one:
a. True
b. False

b

Which of the following is an example of deviance?
Select one:
a. A student cheats on her first sociology exam.
b. A student sits in the middle of the front row in your sociology class and picks his nose throughout the class period.
c. A student walks into your sociology class naked because it is hot outside.
d. all of these

d

Control theory reminds us that while the media may focus on crime and disorder, most members of most societies conform to and obey basic norms.
Select one:
a. True
b. False

a

An important aspect of a professional criminal's work is
Select one:
a. developing technical skills.
b. studying crime statistics.
c. boundary maintenance.
d. goal multiplication.

a

Which theory was used by Edwin Sutherland to emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with others?
Select one:
a. labeling theory
b. techniques of neutralization
c. societal-reaction approach
d. cultural transmission

d

Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the association between the use of surveillance techniques as a means of social control and the power of an authoritarian government?
Select one:
a. interactionist perspective
b. conflict perspective
c. feminist perspective
d. functionalist perspective

b

Which of the following is true of white-collar crime?
Select one:
a. The offender is more likely to receive a prison sentence than a fine.
b. Most cases are heard in municipal courts.
c. all of these
d. Conviction generally does not harm the person's reputation or career aspirations as much as conviction for a street crime would.

d

What term is used to refer to crimes committed by individuals in the course of their daily business activities?
Select one:
a. white-collar crimes
b. organized crime
c. professional crime
d. index crimes

a

Which of the following statements about crime rates in the U.S. is correct?
Select one:
a. all of these
b. There has been a significant decline in violent crime in the U.S. in recent years.
c. Reported crime in the U.S. is high, and the public continues to regard crime as a major social problem.
d. Crimes committed by women have increased.

a

Underreporting of crime in the U.S.
Select one:
a. has been a problem because members of minority groups often refrained from contacting the police AND it is largely the result of White males failing to report crimes because of their insistence on maintaining a macho image.
b. has been a problem because members of racial and ethnic minority groups have not always trusted law enforcement agencies and have often refrained from contacting the police.
c. has not been a problem in recent years.
d. is largely the result of White males failing to report crimes because of their insistence on maintaining a macho image.

b

In his anomie theory of deviance, Robert Merton
Select one:
a. suggested that conformists tend to ignore societal goals.
b. noted that people will always follow one of the five modes of adaptation and maintain that mode for an extended period of time.
c. created a typology to explain the adaptations people make.

b

The most common adaptation in Robert Merton's anomie theory of deviance is
Select one:
a. conformity.
b. innovation.
c. ritualism.
d. rebellion.

a

According to a study by Stanley Milgram, individuals will
Select one:
a. in most instances, disobey the commands of people viewed as legitimate authority figures if the behavior may harm another individual.
b. not conform to the attitudes and behavior of their peers if racism is expected.
c. obey the commands of people viewed as legitimate authority figures, even if the behavior may harm another individual.
d. conform to the attitudes and behaviors of their peers even if such attitudes and behaviors are racist.

c

In his study of the Saints and the Roughnecks, William Chambliss concluded that a key factor in the varying fortunes of the two groups was their differing
Select one:
a. social class standing.
b. political views.
c. ages.
d. all of these

a

Which of the following theories offers a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to conform systematically to society's norms?
Select one:
a. theory of differential association
b. labeling theory
c. control theory
d. anomie theory of deviance

c

An important tenet of labeling theory is the recognition that some individuals or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others. This view shares the emphasis on the social significance of power as purported by the
Select one:
a. conflict perspective.
b. interactionist perspective.
c. global perspective.
d. functionalist perspective.

a

Social control carried out casually by people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule is known as
Select one:
a. formal social control.
b. neutralization.
c. conformity.
d. informal social control.

d

Which sociologist created an interactionist/conflict explanation of deviance that emphasizes that the response to an act-not the behavior-determines deviance?
Select one:
a. Harry King
b. Howard Becker
c. Edwin Sutherland
d. William Chambliss

b

The social constructionist perspective is most closely affiliated with which other sociological explanation of deviance?
Select one:
a. the anomie theory of deviance
b. social disorganization theory
c. labeling theory
d. the theory of differential association

c

Which type of crime is unlikely to be reported in victimization surveys?
Select one:
a. fraud
b. aggravated assault
c. burglary
d. motor vehicle theft

a

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?
Select one:
a. labeling perspective
b. conflict perspective
c. functionalist perspective
d. interactionist perspective

c

Deviance is behavior that
Select one:
a. always violates the laws of a society.
b. is always anomic.
c. violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
d. is always illegal.

c

Students from lower-middle-class families are as likely to attend college as students from wealthy families, as long as they try hard.
Select one:
a. False
b. True

a

What percentage of the total available wealth did the richest 20 percent of people in the U.S. own in 2002?
Select one:
a. 30 percent
b. 84.5 percent
c. 3.5 percent
d. 54.5 percent

b

What term did Thorstein Veblen use to describe the behavior of those at the top of the social hierarchy when they engage in such activities as jetting off to a remote destination for dinner?
Select one:
a. consumption flow
b. consumptive frivolity
c. conspicuous leisure
d. inconspicuous ridicule

c

Max Weber argued that the actions of individuals and groups can be understood solely in economic terms.
Select one:
a. True
b. False

b

Men are more likely than women to withdraw from the workforce when their skills far exceed the jobs offered them.
Select one:
a. False
b. True

a

Conflict sociologists argue that stratification will inevitably lead to instability and to social change.
Select one:
a. False
b. True

b

An ascribed status is a social position
Select one:
a. assigned to a person without regard to the person
b. based solely on income and wealth.
c. based solely on lifestyle.
d. attained by a person largely through his or her own effort.

a

A stratification system that implies that the position of each individual is influenced by the person
Select one:
a. egalitarian class system.
b. closed stratification system.
c. fractured class system.
d. open stratification system.

d

A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is called
Select one:
a. social structure.
b. social inequality.
c. status.
d. socialization.

b

Which of the following terms is used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society?
Select one:
a. status
b. hypergamy
c. social mobility
d. stratification

d

Prestige refers to the
Select one:
a. people who have similar levels of wealth and income.
b. reputation that a particular individual has within an occupation.
c. respect and admiration with which an occupation is regarded by society.
d. ability to exercise one

c

The United Nations has valued the unpaid work performed by women in child care, agriculture, and housework at $11 trillion.
Select one:
a. True
b. False

a

Which sociologist has identified a number of social, economic, and political functions that the poor perform for society (e.g., poor people do society
Select one:
a. Herbert Gans
b. Peter Blau
c. Daniel Rossides

a

Achieved status is a social position
Select one:
a. given to an individual based upon his or her age, race, or gender.
b. assigned to an individual at birth.
c. attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts
d. assigned to a person by peers, without regard to the person

c

College students who come from families with higher incomes are ___________ to graduate from college than students from lower-income families.
Select one:
a. equally likely
b. much more likely
d. slightly more likely

a

Which sociological perspective suggests that the higher rates of poverty among single mothers are due to the difficulty women have finding affordable child care, sexual harassment, and sex discrimination in the labor market?
Select one:
a. conflict perspective
b. global perspective
c. functionalist perspective
d. interactionist perspective

a

Which term is used by Karl Marx to refer to the capitalist class that owns the means of production?
Select one:
a. bourgeoisie
b. proletariat
c. oligarchy
d. peasantry

a

According to Karl Marx, a worker with class consciousness may feel that he or she is being treated fairly by the bourgeoisie, and a worker with false consciousness realizes that all workers are being exploited by the bourgeoisie and have a common stake in revolution.
Select one:
a. False
b. True

a

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