BIO 101 FINAL

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Which of the following questions CANNOT be answered by the scientific method

Did the US act appropriately when it invaded Iraq?

Which of the following areas is NOT heavily influenced by biology

Biology influences ALL theses areas

Your friend believes astrology should be considered a scientific discipline and you want to explain to her why its not. What is the reason why astrology isn't considered a true scientific discipline?

Astrology cannot be tested and proved by controlled experiment

The set analytical and mathematical tools designed to help researchers gain understanding from the data they gather called

Statistics

After generating a hypothesis, a scientist next:

makes a prediction

You hypothesize that there is a casual connection between having the name Kyle and becoming a pitcher. Which of the following is a reasonable testable prediction for your hypothesis?

Examination of the list of all minor league players named Kyle will reveal that they are all pitchers as well

A powerful way to demonstrate that observed difference between a treatment group and a control group truly reflect the effect of the treatment is for researchers

to conduct the experiment over again

Which of the following is usually employed before the others by an investigator using the scientific method?

make observations

Biology is to science as ____is to _____

basketball to sports

Which of the following is the BEST was to state the relationship between "data" and "results"

"data" are the facts you collect from your experiment, while "results" are your interpretation of what the data mean

What is step 4 of the scientific method

conduct a critical experiment

In a scientific experiment a control group

can be compared with an experimental group to assess whether one particular variable is causing a change in the experimental group

In science, theories tend to be ___ then hypothesis

broader in shape

Which of the following statements is correct

A hypothesis that does not generate a testable prediction is not useful

__may have biases that affect their abilities to perform in an objective fashion

all of the above are correct

if your hypothesis is rejected then

you may still have learned something important about the system you were testing

Statistical Methods make it possible to

determine how likely it is that certain results may have occurred by chance

All of the following are branches of biology EXCEPT

geology

Why is it that creationism can never be accepted as a scientific explanation of the origin of life?

because the ideas of creationism can't be tested through experiment and observation

Superstitions are

irrational beliefs that actions not logically related to a course of events influence its outcome

In a well designed experiment

A & B are both correct

Biology is

the study of living things

Which of the following is an important feature of the scientific method

Anyone should be able to repeat an experiment

Which of the following is NOT of central importance to the study of biology

the technical application of research findings

The raw materials of science are

observations

When a chewing gum manufacturer makes claim, "4/5 dentists surveyed recommended sugarless gum for their patients that chew gum", how many dentists need have been surveyed for the statements to be true?

5

Which of the following is most correct?

you can accept/reject a hypothesis, but it to be true

which of the following questions would be least helped by application of scientific method?

formulating public policy on euthansia

if you conduct an experiment that rejects your hypothesis, then:

the null hypothesis was a better fit to your data

in a scientific experiment, a control group

can be compared with an experimental group to assess whether 1 particular variable is causing a change in the experimental group

How can science best help each of us understand the role of humans in nature?

science can provide understanding of how the systems of nature work

all of the following are branches of science except

logic

saturated fatty acids have _____ than unsaturated fatty acids, which is why they exist as a _____ at room temperature

fewer double bonds : solid

on food packages, insoluble "fiber" refers to plant material that we can't fully digest but it is important for maintaining a healthy digestive tract. this substance refers to an

carbohydrate

the nucleus of an atom is usually made up of

protons and neutrons

Which of the following nucleotide bases are present in equal amounts in DNA?

A & T : adenine and thymine

the principal components of cell membranes are

lipids

an element is:

a substance that can't be broken down chemically into any other substance

Helium is not reactive molecule because

it's 1st shell is full with 2 electrons

the secondary structures of a protein refers to

alpha helices and beta sheets

which statement about phosolipids is false

because their phosphate groups repel each other, they are used as organisms, chief form of short term energy

a complex polymer built of amino acids is called

polypeptide

an amino acid is a polypeptide as a

nucleotide is to a nucleic acid

which of the following statements about cellulose is false?

all are true

the number of protons in an element also called its ___ identifies the element

atomic number

3 principal bonds

covalent, ionic, hydrogen bonding

sucrose and lactose are examples of

disaccharides

which of the following statements about enzymes is NOT TRUE

enzymes are permanently changed when they take place in a chemical reaction

covalent bonds

2 atoms that share electrons

ionic bonds

2 atoms of opposite charge are attracted to each other

pH of a fluid is a measure of

how acidic/basic it is

adenine strands to

thymine

number of protons in a element is the

atomic number

phosolipids assemble into bilayers driven by the attraction of their "tail" portions to each other and of their "head" portions to each other the tail regions are

hydrophobic

multiple atoms linked together are called

a molecule

the tendency of molecules to stick together, cohesion, is stronger in water then in other liquids because

the polarity of water allows a hydrogen atom from 1 water molecule to form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen atom of another water molecule

which of the following molecule is not formed by covalent bonding

NaCl

phosphate groups are important components of

nucleic acids

water molecules form which type of bond with other water molecules

hydrogen bonds

which of the following is not an important biological function of lipids?

all above are true

all matter on earth, both living and non-living is made up of

atoms

a complex polymer built of monosaccharides is called

polysaccharides

pure water and AQS are neither acidic/basic are sad to be

neutral

a nucleotide consists of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar and __ are linked together by covalent bonds

a nitrogen containing base

all monosaccharides important in living systems contain

carbon

__ smallest chemical unit of a type of pure substance

an atom

certain molecules act like bank accounts for H+ ions because they can absorb excess H+ ions to keep solutions from becoming too acidic and release H+ ions to keep the solution from becoming too basic such molecules are called

buffers

. In which organelle are lipids synthesized and modified with in the eukaryotic cell?

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum

In the figure, the round, knobby structures are _________ and the Y-shaped post-like structures with semi-circular receptors are ____________.

HIV Particles: CD4 markers

Membrane-bound vesicles containing a substance synthesized by a cell fuse to the outer cell membrane and release their contents to the outside world. What is this process called?

exocytosis

You measure the concentration of a polar molecule inside and outside of a cell. You find that the concentration is high and gradually increasing inside the cell. You also measure the ATP concentration inside the cell and find that it is dropping. What would be your best hypothesis for the process that is occurring?

active transport

Which of the following organelles is responsible for degrading waste within the cell?

lysosome

Eukaryotic cells may contain all of the following EXCEPT:

a peptidoglycan cell wall

"Beta-blockers" do all of the following EXCEPT:

bind to the cytoplasmic side of a receptor protein

The lipids within the fluid mosaic of the plasma membranes are held in place by:

hydrophobic interactions

Prokaryotic organisms lack:

organelles

What is the main function of the nucleolus?

It is the site of ribosome-subunit synthesis.

_________ are found in all metabolically active cells and are involved primarily in transporting materials within, into, and out of cells.

vesicles

Osmosis is _________ specialized than diffusion because it involves _________

more; water

Sugar and CO2 are dissolved in water to make carbonated soft drinks. Which of the following is the solute?

the sugar and the CO2

In eukaryotic cells, vesicles connect which of the two major organelle compartments?

the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus

If the solution surrounding a cell contains less solute than the cytoplasm, the osmotic condition is said to be:

hypotonic

Interacting systems of molecules enclosed in compartments called __________ evolved 3.8 billion years ago in living organisms.

cells

The primary function of molecular membranes is the transport of ions and molecules in and out of cells. The movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to those of high concentration against chemical gradients is best described as:

active transport

The rough ER is the site of protein synthesis and the smooth ER is the site of lipid synthesis. What is the third compartment of the endomembrane system and what is that compartment's function?

Golgi apparatus: finishes the processing of the proteins and sorts them for export out of the cell

Which of the following is NOT a way in which the cell's surface membrane interacts with the exterior environment?

The cellular surface organizes the interior organelle organization of the cell

Although cells tend to be spherical, several factors influence cells to assume other shapes. Which of the following is NOT such a factor?

number of mitochondria

To absorb large particles, cells engulf them within their plasma membrane in a process called

endocytosis

According to the theory of endosymbiosis, the origin of chloroplasts probably involved:

engulfing of small photosynthetic prokaryotes by larger cells

Nuclear ______ are specialized holes in the ________- layered nuclear envelope that separates the nucleus from the ___________.

pores; two; cytoplasm

Which of the following is the outermost feature on the surface of a plant cell?

cell wall

Which of the following is a correct description of how exocytosis functions in transporting molecules across the cellular membrane?

Vesicles are filled with molecules in the interior of the cell and then fuse with the membrane to deposit the molecules outside of the cell.

The organelle in the figure is found in:

plants and animals

Which of the following cell membrane components are present in plant cells but absent in animal cells?

plasmodesmata

Which of the following is NOT a function of the plant vacuole?

photosynthesis

The passive transport of water across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration is best described as:

osmosis.

Given that a cell's structure reflects its function, what would you predict that the function of a cell with a large Golgi apparatus would be?

secretion of digestive enzymes

Which of the following is a cellular characteristic of ALL eukaryotes?

a nuclear membrane

The lysosomes in a human cell contain approximately ________ type(s) of digestive enzymes.

50

What makes the rough endoplasmic reticulum rough?

it is covered with ribosomes

If the solution surrounding a cell contains less solute than the cytoplasm, the osmotic condition is said to be:

hypotonic

Which of the following cellular components contains hydrolytic enzymes associated with the digestion of macromolecules?

lysosmes

Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is FALSE?

It is present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

In aquatic environments, water moves ___________.

down the water concentration gradient

The largest structure in a eukaryotic cell is the ____________ and it is surrounded by______ membranes.

nucleus; two

Which of the following BEST summarizes the differences between osmosis and diffusion?

Osmosis deals only with water.

What cell type in animals has a flagellum?

sperm

What are the two distinct "faces" of the phospholipids that make up the surface membrane of a cell?

A and C are correct

Which one of the following organelles is NOT found in both plant and animal cells?

central valcuole

Eukaryotic cells may contain all of the following EXCEPT

a peptidoglycan cell wall

Which of the following organelles are enclosed by a double membrane?

mitochondria and chloroplasts

Which of the following is NOT an important structural feature on the surface membrane of an animal cell?

cell wall

The cell connections represented in the figure are:

desmosomes

The object depicted in the figure:

is an animal cell

The most effective portion(s) of the visible spectrum in driving photosynthesis is (are):

both A and C are correct

Which of the following does NOT occur during the Calvin cycle?

splitting of water

Three different metabolic pathways are responsible for the production of ATP. What are they?

glycolysis, the reactions on the electron transport chain, and the Krebs (citric acid) cycle

The generation of ATP by the movement of protons down their concentration gradient occurs in:

both A and B are correct

Aerobic bacteria:

lack mitochondria

Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from:

carbohydrates, proteins, and fats

Life gains most of its energy originally from

sunlight

Which of the following statements about fermentation is NOT correct?

All the above correct

What's the difference between stoma and stroma?

Stoma is the singular of stomata, the gas exchange pores in the leaf of the plant, while stroma is the fluid that fills the inner space of a chloroplast

What are the resulting products of the splitting of water in photosynthesis?

electrons, oxygen, and hydrogen ions

Bubbles come from the leaves of an Elodea plant when it is put under water because:

oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis.

Carotenoids:

are accessory pigments in chloroplasts that protect the chlorophyll by absorbing excessive light energy

Which of the following statements about glycolysis is INCORRECT?

It requires oxygen

In photosynthesis, both the first and the second photosystems

generate energy storage molecules

What is the function of the pigment molecules in photosynthesis that are not at the center of a photosystem?

They gather photons and transfer energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll

What is the first step in CAM photosynthesis?

plants open their stomata at night to take in carbon dioxide

Biologically speaking, a pigment:

is a molecule that absorbs photons.

Different steps in cellular respiration occur in different locations in the mitochondria. Which of the following does not properly match a step of respiration to its proper location?

All of the above are correct matches between function and location.

During C4 photosynthesis

plants are able to continue producing sugars even when they must close their stomata to reduce water loss during hot days.

Cellular respiration is the process by which

energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism.

Where does the Calvin cycle take place?

in the stroma of the chloroplast

All alcoholic beverages are produced as the result of:

cellular respiration by yeast occurring in the absence of oxygen. (fermenation)

Which by-product of photosynthesis was important in altering the atmosphere of the earth so that aerobic organisms could evolve?

Oxygen

Which of the following products of the light reactions of photosynthesis are later employed in the Calvin cycle?

NADPH and ATP

During the Calvin cycle, rubisco's function is to:

fix carbon to RuBP

In cellular respiration

a, b, & c are correct

Photosystems:

- are arrangements of light-catching pigments within chloroplasts.

An inherited disease results from abnormal mitochondria passed from mother to child. Using your knowledge of mitochondria's function within human cells, which of the following is the most likely description of the symptoms of this disease?

extreme muscle weakness

Measures of overall DNA similarity between chimpanzees and humans reveal that _____ of our base pairs are the same.

96%

The "green revolution" refers to:

The global intensification of agricultural production

When a triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is CGA, the corresponding codon for the mRNA that is transcribed from it is:

CGU

The expression of a gene to form a polypeptide occurs in two major steps. What are these two steps in the right order?

Transcription and the translation

The double helix model of DNA suggested by Watson and Crick was exciting to the scientific community because

It explained how genetic material could be duplicated by means of the complementary strands

Most genes come in alternative forms called:

Alleles

Alternate versions of a gene are called_____. They can code for different _____of the same character.

Alleles and traits

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