Anatomy II: 4

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___ are considered bad cholesterol; high blood levels are believed to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease.

LDLs.

Which of the following is a characteristic of the electron transport chain?

The ETC occurs in the mitochondria.

Redox reactions:

Are characterized by one substance gaining an e- while another substance loses an e-.

Most ATP in cellular respiration is generated in glycolysis.

False.

A growing child is likely to exhibit negative nitrogen balances.

False.

Which of the following would decrease body temperature?

Dilation of cutaneous blood vessels.

Ammonia, which is a byproduct of protein metabolism, is converted to ___ in the ___.

Urea-liver.

The body is able to form glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors.

True.

Neurons and red blood cells rely exclusively on ___ to meet their energy needs.

Glucose.

Which of the following is a water soluble vitamin?

Vitamin B.

Leptin is a short term regulator of food intake.

True.

The primary goal during the post-absorptive state is to:

Maintain glucose levels within a homeostatic range.

Glycolysis occurs in the ___ of cells and is an ___ process.

Cytosol-anaerobic.

___ is the key hormone regulator of the adsorptive state.

Insulin.

___ refers to reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.

Catabolism.

___ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.

A nutrient.

Which of the following is not an end product of The Krebs Cycle?

Citric acid.

The body's rate of kilocalorie consumption needed to fuel all ongoing activities is called the:

Total metabolic rate.

Ketogenesis:

Formation of ketone bodies.

Beta oxidation:

Conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups.

Lipogenesis:

Synthesis of lipids from glucose or amino acids.

Lipolysis:

Splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.

Glycogenolysis:

Breakdown of glycogen to release glucose.

Gluconeogenesis:

Formation of glucose from proteins or fat.

Glycolysis:

Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid.

Glycogenesis:

Storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.

Glycolysis:

Occurs in the cytosol of a cell.

The Krebs Cycle and ETC.

Produces the most ATP.

The Krebs Cycle and ETC.

Involves the removal of hydrogen, electrons, and CO2 from the substrate molecule.

The Krebs Cycle and ETC.

Involves the use of oxygen to pick up excess hydrogen and electrons.

Glucolysis.

Glucose serves as the initial reactant.

Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration?

Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, ETC, and oxidative phosphorylation.

Prostaglandins play a role in:

Control of blood pressure.

Which of the following molecules are considered key at metabolic crossroads?

Glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvic acid, and acetyl CoA.

Which of the following best describes negative nitrogen balance?

Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of:

Fatty acids.

Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?

Eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish.

Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrates taken into the body?

Conversion to a nucleic acid.

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells:

Glucose.

Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves:

Radiation.

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram?

Fats.

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because:

Most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients.

Lipogenesis occurs when:

Cellular ATP and glucose levels are high.

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

Oxidative phosphorylation.

Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat conduction?

Sweating.

The most abundant dietary lipids are:

Triglycerides.

What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?

Phosphorylation.

When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level than the actual body temperature, that person may:

Shiver.

Oxidative deamination takes place in the:

Liver.

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except?

Production of energy.

Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange?

Shivering.

Which of the following is correct?

Glycolysis relies on substrate level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway.

Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation?

It involves the anabolism of fats.

Dietary fats are important because they ___.

Help the body absorb fat soluble vitamins.

Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?

The ratio of surface area to volume of the body.

The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ___.

Lipolysis.

Catabolism would be best described as a process that ___.

Breaks down complex structures into simpler ones.

When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly:

Urea.

Cholesterol has importance in the body because it ___.

Is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parents molecule of steroid hormones.

Oxidation reduction reactions:

May involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons.

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the:

Absorptive state.

Which of the following statements is false?

The amino acid pool is the body's total supply of amino acids in the body's proteins.

Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state.

Insulin.

Heat loss mechanisms do not include:

Vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels.

Which of the following is not a function of LDLs?

Transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver.

What is the outcome of ketosis?

Metabolic acidosis.

Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ___.

Transferred to a keto acid.

Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?

Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.

Glucose can be obtained from:

Glycogenolysis.

Select the correct statement about proteins:

Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydtrates are ingested.

Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include:

Excessive amounts of protein in the diet.

Oxidation reduction reactions are catalyzed by which enzymes?

Dehydrogenases and oxidases.

As the body progresses from the absorptive state to the postabsorptive state, only the ___=

Brain.

Anabolism includes reactions in which:

Larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones.

The term metabolism is best defined as:

Biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy.

Gluconeognesis is the process in which:

Glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors.

Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?

Glycolysis.

The amount of ___ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.

Thryoxine.

Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat promoting center?

Release of epinephrine.

In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ___ are converted to glucose.

Glycerol.

In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ___ in the oxidative state.

Ammonia.

Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabosorptive state?

Absorption of glucose from the GI tract.

Glycolysis is best define as a catabolic reaction based upon the:

Conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid.

The primary function of cellular respiration:

Is to break down food molecules and generate ATP.

Which of the following statements best describes complete proteins?

Must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth.

The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake:

Muscle mass and metabolism decline with age.

The term metabolic rate reflects the ____.

Energy the body needs to perform only its most basic essential activities.

Which of the following is the most important function of the liver.

Protein metabolism.

Fat soluble vitamins can be toxic if consumed in large quantities.

True.

___ is considered "good" cholesterol; high blood levels of this cholesterol are thought to be beneficial.

HDLs.

As proteins are broken down for energy, ___ is generated. The liver then converts this potentially toxic intermediate into ____.

Ammonia-urea.

Which of the following is considered a long term regulator of food intake?

Leptin levels.

A substance that is reduced has lost an electron.

False.

Which of the following is a micronutrient?

Minerals.

Which of the following is a characteristic of The Krebs Cycle?

The Krebs Cycle generates a rich supply of the reduced coenzymes NADH and FADH2.

Which of the following is an example of catabolism?

Cellular respiration.

The final electron acceptor in the ETC is:

Oxygen.

Which of the following would raise body temperature?

Eating a large meal.

Viatmins.

Can function as coenzymes.

Mineral.

An example of calcium.

Cholesterol.

Serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane.

Glucose.

Exclusive energy source for neurons.

Protein.

Used to build enzymes.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of glycolysis?

Glycolysis is an aerobic process.

Glycogenesis.

The formation of glycogen to store glucose.

Beta oxidation.

The start phase of fatty acid breakdown.

Lipogensis.

Triglyceride synthesis.

Glucneogenesis.

The process of forming new glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules.

Glycogenolysis.

The cleavage of glycogen to release glucose.

In the absorptive state:

Insulin serves as the regulatory hormone.

The body's overall rate of energy output is called the basal metabolic rate.

Falese.

In the postabsorptive state:

Glycogen is broken down to release glucose.

A person who is starving will likely exhibit:

Negative nitrogen balance.

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