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deviant behaviors

differ from prevailing societal standards

goodness-of-fit

the idea that behavior is problematic or not problematic depending on the environment in which it occurs

individuate

separate

culture

shared behavioral patterns that differentiate between groups and are taught from generation to generation

culture-bound illness

abnormal behaviors that are specific to a particular location or group

abnormal behavior

behavior that is inconsistent with the individual's developmental, cultural, and societal norms, creates emotional distress, or interfered with daily functioning

socioeconomic status

family income and educational achievement

downward drift

impairment results from a psychological disorder result in job loss or limited educational achievement

developmental trajectory

the idea that common symptoms of a disorder may vary depending on a person's age

trephination

process in which a circular instrument was used to cut away sections of the skull

humours

fluids found in the body: yellow bile, black bile, phlegm, blood

hysteria

now called conversion disorder

mass hysteria

a situation in which a group of people share and sometimes even act upon a belief that is not based in fact (tarantism and lycanthropy)

emotional contagion

the automatic mimicry and synchronization of expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements of one person by another

tarantism

the belief that the bite of a wolf spider (tarantula) would cause death unless a person engaged in joyous, frenetic dancing

lycanthropy

individuals believed that they were possessed by wolves; sometimes it was so strong that those affected would act like a wolf, even believing they were covered in fur

asylums

separate facilities designed to isolate them from the general public

animal magnetism

a force that Mesmer believed flowed within the body and, when impeded, resulted in disease

placebo effect

a condition in which symptoms of illness diminish or disappear not because of any specific treatment, but because the patient believes that a treatment is effective

etiology

cause

prognosis

progression and outcome

dementia praecox

Kraeplin's name for a psychological disorder characterized by deterioration of mental faculties (now called schizophrenia)

Schizophrenia

a disorder involving serious abnormalities in thought, perceptions, and behavior

talking cure

therapy in the form of discussion of psychological distress with a trained professional, leading to the elimination of distressing symptoms

psychoanalysis

a theory of abnormal behavior originated by Sigmund Freud that was based on the belief that many aspects of behavior were controlled by unconscious innate biological urges that existed from infancy

classical conditioning

a form of learning in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to produce a conditioned response

behaviorism

the theory that the only appropriate objects of scientific study are behaviors that can be observed and measured directly

scientist-practitioner approach

an approach to psychological disorders based on the concept that when providing treatment to people with psychological disorders, the psychologist investigates topics that help to guide and improve psychological care

neurons

nerve cells found throughout the body, including the brain

synapses

spaces between neurons

neurotransmitters

chemical substances that are released into the synapse and transmit information from one neuron to another

neuroscience

the study of the structure and function of the nervous system and the interaction of that system and behavior

biological scarring

the process by which years of living with a disorder cause changes in the brain

behavioral genetics

field of study that explores the role of genes and environment in the transmission of behavioral traits

viral infection theory

the theory that during the prenatal period or shortly thereafter, viral infection could cause some psychological disorders

defense mechanisms

denial, displacement, intellectualization, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, sublimation, suppression, undoing

ego psychology

a form of psychodynamic theory that focuses on conscious motivations and healthy forms of human functioning

stages of psychosexual development

oral phase (o-1 1/2), anal phase (1 1/2-3), phallic phase (3-5), latency and genital phases

goals of psychoanalysis

insight, catharsis

operant conditioning

a form of learning in which behavior is acquired or changed by the events that happen afterward

reinforcement

a contingent event that strengthens the response that preceded it

principles of reinforcement

reinforcers vary by individual, there are primary and secondary reinforcers

primary reinforcers

objects that have their own intrinsic value (food, water, etc)

secondary reinforcers

objects that have acquired value because they become associated with primary reinforcers

punishment

application of something painful or the removal of something positive

vicarious conditioning

a distinct type of learning in which the person need not actually do the behavior in order to acquire it

shaping

a process whereby closer steps, or successive approximations, to a final goal are rewarded

cognitive model

proposes that abnormal behavior is a result of distorted cognitive processes

negative cognitive triad

a negative view of the self, the world, and the future

phenomenology

a school of thought that holds that one's subjective perception of the world is more important than the world in actuality

sociocultural models

the idea that abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces

client-centered therapy

goal is to release the individual's existing capacity to self-actualize through interaction with the therapist; based on genuineness, empathic understanding, and unconditional postive regard

sociocultural models

propose that abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces

conditional positive regard

a person is treated with respect and caring only when meeting the standards set by tohers; the person comes to believe that he or she is worthy only when meeting those standards

dissociation

feeling of being detached from one's body

modern psychologists now recognize that

abnormal behavior cannot be undertood using a single theoretical explanation; abnormal behavior is complex; understanding abnormal behavior will advance only if we embrace and integrate the various conceptual models

biopsychosocial perspective

the idea that biological, psychological, and social factors probably contribute to the development of abnormal behavior and different factors are important for different individuals

diathesis

the presence of a biological or psychological predisposition to a disease or disorder

translational research

a scientific approach that focuses on communication between basic science and applied clinical research

central nervous system

one part of the human nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

one part of the human nervous system that includes the sensory somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and returns the body to resting levels after these systems have been activated; controls sensations and muscle movements, controls involuntary movements

brain stem

part of the brain, located at its base, which controls fundamental biological functions such as breathing

midbrain

a portion of the brain stem that coordinates sensory information and movement; includes the reticular activating system, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus

forebrain

part of the brain that includes the limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex

cerebral cortex

the largest part of the forebrain; contains structures that contribute to higher cognitive functioning including reasoning, abstract thought, perception of time and creativity

temporal lobe

one of four lobes of the brain; associated with understanding auditory and verbal information, labeling of objects, and verbal memory

perietal lobe

one of four lobes of the brain; integrates sensory information from various sources and may be involved with visiospatial processing

occipital lobe

one of four lobes of the brain; located at the back of the skull; center of visual processing

frontal lobe

one of the four lobes of the brain; seat of reasoning, impulse control, judgment, language, memory, motor function, problem solving, and sexual and social behavior

endocrine system

a system in the body that sends messages to the bodily organs via hormones

hormones

chemical messengers that are released into the bloodstream and act on target organs

neurotransmitters

chemical substances that relay electrical signals between one neuron and the next

neuroanatomy

brain structure

familial aggregation

process of examining whether family members of a person with a particular disorder are more likely to have that disorder than family members of people without the disorder

proband

person with a particular disorder in a familial aggregation study

molecular genetics

the study of the structure and function of genes

genomewide linkage analysis

a technique that uses samples of families with many individuals who are ill with the same disorder of large samples or relatives who have the same disorder to identify genomic regions that may hold genes that influence a trait

candidate gene association study

compares one or a few genes in a large group of individuals who have a specific trait or disorder with a well matched group of individuals who do not have the trait or disorder

genomewide association study

unbiased search of the human genome comparing cases and controls on genetic variants scattered across the genome for evidence of association

case study

comprehensive description of an individual (or group of individuals) that focuses on assessment or description of abnormal behavior or its treatment

experimental variable

the variable being tested in an experimental study

control group

comparison group for an experimental study; in this group, the variable to be studied is absent

single-case designs

experimental studies conducted with a single individual

correlations

relationships between variables

correlation coefficient

statistical figure that describes the direction and strength of a correlation

controlled group designs

experiments in which groups of participants are exposed to different conditions, at least one of which is experimental and one of which is a control

independent variable

the variable in a controlled experiment that is controlled by the experimenter

dependent variable

the variable in a controlled experiment that is assessed to determine the effect of the independent variable

cohort

a group of people who share a common characteristic and move forward in time as a unit

cross-sectional design

a research design in which participants are assessed once for the specific variable under investigation

longitudinal design

a research design in which participants are assessed at least two times, often more, over a certain time interval

epidemiology

a research approach that focuses on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders and the factors that influence those patterns

prevalence

the number of cases of a disorder in a given population during a specified period of time

incidence

number of new cases that emerge in a given population during a specified period of time

experimental epidemiology

a research method in which the scientist manipulates exposure to either causal or preventive factors

clinical assessment

the process of gathering information about a person and his or her environment to make decisions about the nature, status, and treatment of psychological problems

screening

an assessment process that attempts to identify psychological problems or predict the risk of future problems among people who are not referred for clinical assessment

diagnosis

identification of an illness

differential diagnosis

a process in which a clinician weighs how likely it is that a person has one diagnosis instead of another

clinical significance

observed change that is meaningful in terms of clinical functioning

normative

a comparison group that is representative of the entire population against which a person's score on a psychological test is compared

self-referent comparisons

comparison of responses on a psychological instrument with a person's own prior performance

reliability

how well a psychological assessment instrument produces consistent results each time it is given

test-retest reliability

how well a test produces similar scores over time when given to the same individual(s)

interrater agreement

the amount of agreement between two clinicians who are using the same measure to rate the same symptoms in a single patient

validity

the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to assess

clinical interviews

conversations between an interviewer and a patient, the purpose of which is to gather information and make judgments related to assessment goals

unstructured interviews

clinical interviews in which the clinician decides what questions to ask and how to ask them

structured interview

clinical interview in which the clinician asks a standard set of questions, usually with the goal of establishing a diagnosis

personality test

psychological test that measures personality characteristics

intelligence tests

tests that measure intelligence quotient

intelligence quotient

a score of cognitive functioning that compares a person's performance to his or her age-matched peers

projective tests

tests derived from psychoanalytic theory in which people are asked to respond to ambiguous stimuli

functional analysis

also called behavioral analysis or functional assessment; a strategy of behavioral assessment in which a clinician attempts to identify causal links between problem behaviors and environmental variables

self-monitoring

a procedure within behavioral assessment in which the patient observes and records his or her own behavior as it happens

behavioral observation

the measurement of behavior as it occurs by someone other than the person whose behavior is being observed

behavioral avoidance tests

behavioral assessment strategies used to assess avoidance behavior by asking a patient to approach a feared situation as closely as possible

psychophysiological assessment

assessment strategies that measure brain structure, brain function, and nervous system activity

multiaxial system

a system of diagnosis and classification used by the DSM that requires classifying a patient's behavior on five different dimensions

International Classification of Diseases

a classification system for mental disorders developed in Europe that is an international standard diagnostic system for epidemiology and many health management purposes

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