Ch. 10-11

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Which of the following is an example of a programmed decision situation?

a-arranging financing for constructing a new $50 million office building
b-reorder of raw materials from an established supplier**
c-purchase of a new mainframe computer
d-a firm's purchase consideration of a parts manufacturer

All of the following are characteristics of a nonprogrammed decision situation except:

a-complex
b-multivariate**
c-unstructured
d-new

The initial step in a problem solving, decision situation is:

problem recognition

The final step in the decision-making process is:

feedback and monitoring

Intuition would be a major part of the input for a manager making what kind of decision?

nonprogrammed decision

Your text discusses the difficult decisions frequently confronting the Blue Man Group. Many of these decisions would be classified as programmable and unprogrammable. However, the feature states they have consistently made effective decisions as reflected by their continuous success. Which of the following is the best explanation for the Blue Man Group's good decision making?

they keep true to a vision and make sound business decisions in line with that vision

An effective decision is timely, acceptable to the individuals affected by it, and

meets the desired objective

The rational model of decision making assumes:

that the decision maker can calculate the probability of success for alternatives

In the rational model, the decision maker strives to:

optimize

Under the bounded rationality model of problem solving and decision making:

managers are comfortable making decisions without identifying all options

The model of bounded rationality was first proposed by:

Herbert Simon

You are starting your senior year of college and look forward to graduation in May. An important task at hand is selecting courses for your final year of study. All but two of your courses are electives. Your course selections will most likely be made based on the:

bounded rationality model

An important element of the bounded rationality model is:

Satisficing..picking the first option that looks good because of time and effort restraints

Heuristics are

shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity

Which decision-making model is the most realistic in portraying the managerial decision process

Bounded Rationality Model

A decision situation where some information is known and probabilities can be assigned to alternative solutions reflects a decision made under:

risk

The cognitive style that exhibits a preference for data and a detailed, objective approach to decision making is:

sensing/thinking

The fourth step in the Z model of problem solving is:

Impact analysis (weigh the impact)

Step one of the Z model corresponds to the _____ cognitive style

sensing/thinking
(examine facts and details.. use sensing to gather info about the problem)

The first step in the Z problem solving model, which is to examine facts and detail, uses which of the following to gather information about the problem?

sensing

All of the following are examples of escalation of commitment except:

a-price wars between airlines
b-NASA's International Space Station
c-British Airways and Air France's Concorde operations
d-Blue Man Group's history of making decisions that involve exiting businesses and offers to sell credit cards and soft drinks**

three reasons why managers may hang on to a losing course of action or escalate their commitment?

cognitive dissonance, overly optimistic, and illusion of control

Which of the following is NOT one of the explanations for the escalation of commitment?

a-cognitive dissonance theory
b-optimism
c-illusion of control
d-high or low self-monitoring**

Continuing to support a failing course of action is known as:

Escalation of Commitment

Which of the following is an effective way of managing decisions in order to avoid escalation of commitment?

Have groups rather than individuals make initial investment decisions

Research indicates that women are:

More averse to risk than men

The combination of a perceiving style and judging style that an individual prefers for gathering information and evaluating alternatives is known as:

Cognitive style

In the consideration of whether the right or the left part of the brain should be utilized in decision making, the ideal situation is to be:

brain lateralized

The right side of the brain is best used for which type of activity or decision?

Develop visions and strategic plans

An incorrect assumption about the use of intuition in making decisions is that:

it is seldom a positive force

The research by Henry Mintzberg regarding intuition and managerial roles suggests that:

managers make judgments based on hunches

A recent review of the research on intuition suggests that:

although intuition cannot be taught, managers can be trained to rely more fully on the prompting of their intuition

Agor, a researcher on intuition, suggests all of the following can be techniques used by managers to tap into their intuition except:

using decision heuristics and satisficing

The stage of creativity where one engages in other activities while the mind considers the problem is:

Incubation

Which of the following is generally NOT associated with creative abilities or creativity?

Concern for failure

An organization should do or provide all of the following except _____ if it wants to encourage employee creativity.

a-close supervision**
b-participative decision making
c-peer support
d-flexible organizational structure

An organization could increase creativity by doing which of the following?

eliminate office walls and cubicles

Research has indicated that creative performance is highest when:

there is a match, or fit, between the individual and organizational influences on creativity

Searching for the "right" answer and avoiding problems outside of our own expertise would be considered what type of problem for creativity?

mental locks

Research on the impact of moods on tasks that involve considerable cognitive demands suggests:

negative moods result in better performance

Responsive creativity is:

responding to a problem that is presented to you by others because it is a part of your job

The majority-wins rule in group decision making is an example of:

a social decision scheme

When the group decision involves a matter of preference or opinion, the most appropriate social decision scheme is:

the majority-wins rule

A shortcoming or liability of the group process in decision making is:

too much time spent making the decision

A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressures defines:

groupthink

High cohesiveness, directive leadership, and high stress are antecedent conditions for

groupthink

An approach to minimize groupthink is to:

re-examine the preferred solution even if consensus has been reached

Which of the following would NOT be considered a symptom of groupthink?

high conflict

A group approach to decision making tends to be appropriate when:

employees may be in conflict over preferred solution

A review of the decision situation in the Challenger incident identified which two variables as being important to the groupthink phenomena?

Leadership style and Time constraints

Group polarization results in:

the tendency for group members who were initially more cautious to become significantly less cautious

The social comparison approach and persuasive arguments view have both been used to explain:

group polarization

A good group decision approach when an objective is to maximize the number of alternatives is:

brainstorming

A structured approach to decision making that focuses on generating alternatives silently, prevents criticism of alternatives, and uses a voting process to identify group choices is:

the Nominal Group

A technique that is valuable in its ability to generate a number of independent judgments without the requirement of a face-to-face meeting is:

The Delphi Technique

As a project group leader, you have recognized the benefits of conflict and some disagreement among project members in solving difficult problems. Accordingly, you are likely to use:

Dialectical Inquiry

Which of the following is a characteristic of quality teams?

They make data-based decisions about improving product and service quality

An antidote for groupthink in self-managed teams is

welcoming dissent

Recent research examining the effects of cultural diversity on decision making has found that when individuals in a group are racially dissimilar:

they arrive at better decisions than racially similar groups

Participative decision making tends to be associated with:

higher levels of employee job satisfaction

A key organizational requirement for participation in decision making includes:

supportive culture

Which of the following is NOT considered to be an individual prerequisite for participation and empowerment?

reliance on external rewards

The legitimacy inherent in one's job is _____, whereas the ability to influence someone else is _____.

authority; power

If a person can affect the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person, she has:

influence

If a manager asks an employee to purchase a gift for his wife, the employee would think this request:

falls outside his zone of indifference

Enlarging an employee's zone of indifference is accomplished by:

the use of power

Suppose a manager asks an employee to purchase a birthday gift for manager's wife. If the employee is to complete this request, which of the following is most true?

The manager must enlarge the zone of indifference with power

The range in which attempts to influence the employee are perceived as legitimate and are acted on without a great deal of thought is known as:

the zone of indifference

Enlarging an individual's zone of indifference is best accomplished through:

power

As a management trainee, you are assigned to a mentor and gain considerable insight into the nature of management and how to behave in different managerial situations. The relationship you have with the mentor is based on _____ power.

referent

Assume you are a senior accounting major. A friend who is taking a Principles of Accounting course seeks you out for tutorial assistance. This is an example of _____ power.

expert

Which of the following power sources is LEAST likely to be available to a non-supervisory, technical employee?

Legitimate

The power base of the future will likely be

Expert

As a student, you are developing _____ power.

expert

Which base of power has the strongest relationship with performance and satisfaction?

Expert

Your authors suggest the addition of another source of power to French and Raven's five sources of power. Which of the following best reflects this additional source of power?

information power

An important aspect of a manager's exercise of reward power in the determination of employee salary increases is:

distributive justice

To use power ethically an manager should examine the behavior by asking three questions regarding criterion outcomes of:

distributive justice, utilitarian, and individual rights

Granting a day of vacation to one employee in a busy week when coworkers must struggle to cover for them would be considered unethical under which of the following criterions?

distributive justice

If a salesperson significantly discounted the price of a product in order to make a sale that would win a contest, the salesperson would be most likely to breach which of the following ethical principles?

Utilitarian principle

The scandal at Volkswagon that involved "perks and prostitutes" was the result of:

close ties between labor and top executives

To be considered ethical, power related behavior must meet:

individual rights criterion, distributive justice criterion and utilitarian criterion

A manager who withholds information to make another manager look bad by making an incorrect decision is displaying _____ power.

personal

A manager who is considered Machiavellian would rely on what type of power?

Personal

Which of the following is NOT a positive power-oriented characteristic according to McClelland?

Explain just enough to pacify employees sufficiently so they wont' ask questions

McClelland's two faces of power include:

Personal and Social

McClelland's positive face of power is:

Social Power

McClelland's perspective of power is best reflected by which statement?

The concept of power is value free and neutral

McClelland has found that the best managers are those who have:

high need for social power and low need for affiliation

According to McClelland, when a manager treats others as objects to be utilized to get ahead, or views situations as win-lose, the manager is using which form of power?

Personal Power

Former Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich tried to sell President Barack Obama's Senate seat for money. It was also reported he attempted to trade the seat for money, ambassadorships, and even a $150,000 salary for his wife. This is an example of the use of:

personal power

When a firm is preparing for bankruptcy, the accountants as a group may become unduly powerful because of:

their nonsubstitutability

According to the strategic contingency perspective, which one of the following factors is NOT a primary factor used to explain differences in power between departments?

amount of formal authority given departments have

The key element behind the factors used to explain power differences between groups based on the strategic contingency model is:

dependence

As a supervisor, you will most likely exercise _____ power in an employee disciplinary situation.

coercive

Kanter's focus on power is in terms of one's:

ability to exercise power and do things for others, particularly persons in need

According the Kanter's perspective on power, the key to overcoming powerlessness in organizations is to:

delegate tasks and share power

Which of the following is a symptom of powerlessness at the first line supervisory level?

overly close supervision

An individual who seems to always have a full calendar and is frequently going to meetings displays _____, according to Korda.

Time power

Whose perspective on power is best captured by the statement, "There are more people who inconvenience themselves on your behalf than there are people on whose behalf you would inconvenience yourself."?

Korda

According to Michael Korda's view on power which emphasizes symbols of power, which of the following are the three unusual symbols used to explain power differences between individuals?

office furnishing, time power, and standing by

Korda's symbols of power focus on status or:

a person's relative standing in a group based on prestige and having other people defer to him or her

All of the following are conditions within an organization that can encourage unnecessary political behavior except:

well-defined and understood problems

The use of power and influence in organizations is referred to as:

organizational politics

Actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one's personal goals is called:

political behavior

Which of the following conditions would LEAST encourage political activity?

abundant resources

Research on influence tactics indicates that _____ tactics are least used.

Exchange

If your boss exhibits a participatory style of managing, an appropriate influence tactic for you is:

coalition building

Evidence indicates that the influence tactic which has the most positive effect on supervisors' assessments of promotability is:

rational persuasion

The least effective influence tactic, regardless of the circumstance of the situation, involves:

Pressure

Which of the following influence tactic is LEAST political?

Consultation

Research has shown that four tactics are used most frequently regardless of the target of the influence attempt. Which of the following is NOT one of the four tactics used most frequently?

Exchange

When both men and women witness political behavior and the agent is of their gender and the target is of the opposite gender, evidence suggests:

men and women will view the political behavior more positively

Which of the following influence tactics would likely have the most negative effect in your attempt to influence a decision with respect to promotability?

ingratiation

The textbook suggested that there were three ways a manager can use influence tactics well or in a positive manner. Which of the following is NOT one of the key ways to positively use influence?

use job-related tactics

Research suggests that the one factor that enables people to use ingratiation effectively is:

Political skill

In which culture would a manager be more likely to deal with a tardy employee by stating: "is there anything I can do to help you overcome the problems that are preventing you from coming to work on time"?

Japan

All of the following are considered a key dimension for being politically skillful EXCEPT:

low self monitoring

The ability to get things done through positive interpersonal relationships outside the formal organization is know as:

political skill

Which of the following is LEAST likely to minimize the negative aspects of organizational politics?

Disregard the informal organization

The first step in managing political behavior is:

recognizing it

have a new boss, someone hired from outside the firm. He has several years of managerial experience in the industry of your firm, but, of course he doesn't have specific knowledge of operational matters for your firm. If you want to develop an effective work relationship with him, you should:

Share information and keep him informed

Which of the following is NOT included in the set of activities discussed in your text on how to manage the relationship with your boss?

Assess the needs of the organizations as they relate to customers or the external/market environment

It is easier to encourage employee empowerment when the organization highly values _____ and _____ power.

expert and referent

All of the following are guidelines for implementing an empowerment program except:

set modest goals

Which of the following set of dimensions comprise the essence of empowerment?

meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact

An employee empowerment attempt would be LEAST appropriate in a:

prison

With regard to empowerment, the term "meaning" refers to:

the fit between the work role and employees values and beliefs

The organizational rewards sought from using all four of the empowerment dimensions discussed in your text include:

increased effectiveness, less stress, and higher job satisfaction

Empowerment can be thought about as being related to which two job dimensions?

Job Content and job Context

The critical factor that increases empowerment in relation to the critical job dimensions is:

involvement in the decision-making process

Self-management or the highest level of empowerment represents:

decision making control over job content and job context

If an employee has problem identification decision-making authority over job content and job context, the position on the employee empowerment grid is best reflected by:

no discretion

Which of the following personality characteristics is central to empowerment?

self efficacy

Kiva is representative of "people empowering people" by:

blending microfinance and social networking

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