General anatomy and Physiology Chapter 6

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Cosmetology is primarily restricted to the muscles, nerves, circulatory system, and :

bones of the head, face, neck, arms, hands, lower legs, and feet

The basic unit of all living things is the:

cell

The substance called protoplasm is found in:

the cells of all living things

The study of the structures of the human body is :

anatomy

A dense active protoplasm found in the center of the cell is:

nucleus

Most cells reproduce by dividing into two identical cells called:

daughter cells

The watery fluid that cells need for growth, reproduction, and self-repair is found in the:

cytoplasm

The chemical process whereby cells are nourished and carry out their activities is:

metabolism

The chemical process of cell nourishment has two phases, which are:

anabolism and catabolism

A collection of similar cells that perform a specific function are:

tissue

A type of tissue that supports, protects, and binds together other tissues of the body is:

connective tissue

Tissues that are a protective covering on the skin or the lining of the heart and glands are examples of :

epithelial tissue

Nerve tissue is composed of special cells known as:

neurons

The physical foundation of the body is the:

skeletal system

The connection between two or more bones is a:

joint

The scientific name for the study of the anatomy, structure, and function of the bones is:

osteology

The ankle joint is formed by the tibia, fibula, and the:

talus

The oval, bony case that protects the brain is the:

cranium

The hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bone, which forms the back of the skull above the nape is the:

occipital bone

The bones of the face are involved in:

facial massage

The system of the body that covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue is the:

muscular system

The medical term used to describe the study, function, and diseases of the muscles is:

myology

The two bones that form the upper jaw are:

maxillae bones

The two bones that form the sides and crown (top) of the cranium are the :

parietal bones

The uppermost and largest bone of the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder, is the:

humerus

The foot is made up of ______ bones.

26

The ______ is a heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee

femur

Muscles are fibrous tissue classified as three types, which are:

striated, nonstriated, and cardiac

Skeletal muscles attached to bone that are voluntary or controlled at will are:

striated muscle

The part of the muscle that does not move is the:

origin

Pressure applied to a muscle during a massage is usually directed from the:

insertion to the origin

The broad muscle that covers the top of the head is the:

epicranius

The front portion of the epicranius that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across the forehead is the

frontalis

The sternocleidomastoid muscle in the muscle of the neck that is responsible for:

lowering and rotating the head

The ring muscle of the eye socket that enables the eyes to close the:

orbicularis aculi

A muscle covering the back of the neck and the upper and middle region of the back that rotate and controls the swinging of the arms is the:

Traspezius

Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line are the:

extensors

The muscles at the base of the fingers that draw fingers together are the:

adductors

The gastrocnemius muscle is located in the:

lower leg

The scientific study of the structire, function, and the pathology of the nervous system is:

neurology

Every square inch of the body is supplied with fine fibers known as:

nerves

The nervous system that controls the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves is the:

central nervous system

The system of nerves that carries impulses or messages to and from the central nervous system id the:

peripheral nervous system

The portion of the central nervous systemthat originates in th brain, extends down the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected is the:

spinal cord

The largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body is the:

brain

Whitish cord made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue are:

nerves

Sensory nerve endings that are located close to the surface of the skin are:

receptors

Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles and produce movement are:

motor nerves

The largest of the cranial nerves, also known as the trifacial nerve or the trigeminal nerve is the:

The largest of the cranial nerves, also known as the trifacial nerve or the trigeminal nerve is the:

The chief motor nerve of the face that emerges near the lower part of the ear and extends to the muscles of the neck is the :

seventh cranial

The nerve and branches that supply the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand is the

radial nerve

The anterior tibial nerve extends to the front of the leg, behind the muscles, and is also referred to as:

deep peroneal nerve

circulatory system The system that controls the steady circulation of blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels is

circulatory system

The system that involves the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins is the:

blood vascular system

A clear yellowish fluid that circulates in thelymphatics of the body and carries waste and imppurities away from the cells is:

lymph

The upper, thin walled chambers of the heart are the:

left and right atria

The blood circulatory system that sends blood from the heart to the lungs tobe purified is the

pulmonary circulation

Tubelike structures that include arteries, capillaries, and veins are:

blood vessels

A thin walled blood vessel that is less elastic than an artery is a :

vein

The largest artery in the human body is the:

aorta

White blood cells perform the important function of destroying:

disease causing microorganisms

The artery that suppies blood to the anterior (front) part of the scalp, ear, face, neck, and side of the head is the:

internal carotid artery

The main blood supply of the arms and hands are the

ulnar and radial arteries

which of the following is not an artery that supplies blood to the lower leg or foot ?

radial artery

Endocrine glands release a secretion called:

hormones

The integumentary system is made up of the skin and accessory organs such as:

oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors,hair and nails

Form the prominence of the cheeks

zygomatic

small, thin bones located at the front inner wall

lacrimal

The __________are the bones of the palm of the hand

metacarpus

Accessory bone, forms the knee cap joint

patella

One of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of five bones which are long and and slender

Metatarsal

One of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of seven bones

Tarsal

The larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee visualized as a bump on the big toe side of the ankle

tibia

Smooth muscles, are involuntary and function automatically, without conscious will

Nonstriated muscles

A muscle has three parts _______________

origin, insertion, and belly

Tendon that connects the occipitals and frontalis

Epicranial aponeurosis

Draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically

Corrugator muscle

muscle of the neck that lowers and rotates the head

Sternocleidomastoideus

The _____________ and the temporalis muscle coordinate in opening and closing the mouth, and are sometimes referred to as chewing muscles

Masseter

Compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips

Buccinator Muscle

Extensor muscles of the wrist, involved in bending the wrist

Flexors

Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward

Pronators

Muscle of the forearm that rotates the outward and palms upward

Supinator

Large, tringular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allow the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body

Deltoid

Lift the forearm and flex the elbow

Bicep

Sends and receives messages through 12 pairs of cranial nerves that originate in the brain and reach various parts of the head, face, and neck

The brain

Send impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles

Axon

Carry impulses from the brain to the muscles produce movement

Motor nerves

The largest of the cranial nerves is the _________ nerve

fifth cranial

The _________nerve is the chief motor nerve of the face

seventh cranial nerve

________do not have to be learned they are automatic

reflexes

Affects the external ear and skin above the temple up to the top of the skull

auriculotemporal nerve

Messages from the sense organs to the brain

Sensory nerves

Affects the muscle of the mouth

Buccal nerve

Affects the muscle of the chin and lower lip

mandibular nerve

Are the main sources of blood supply to the head, face, and neck

common carotid arteries

Sweat and oil glands of the skin and intestinal glands belong to this group

Exocrine glands

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