Chapter 30 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

60 terms by raymondjelus Plus

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Aesthetic surgery

Surgery that is performed to improve appearance but not necessarily function; also called cosmetic surgery.

Allograft

A tissue graft in which the donor and recipient are of the same species.

Autograft

The surgical transplantation of tissue from one part of the body to another in the same individual.

Biological grafts

Grafts derived from live tissue, whether human or animal.

Biosynthetic

A type of graft or implant material made synthetic absorbable material.

Composite graft

A biological graft composed of different types of tissues such as skin and muscle.

Debridement

The surgical removal of dead skin, debris, and infectious material from a wound.

Dermatome

A medical device used for removing single thickness skin grafts.

Eschar

Tissue that has been burned --- second, third degree burns --- but remains adherent to the wound. Eschar is nonelastic and may constrict underlying structures, impairing vial functions.

Escharotomy

Excision of eschar to release stricture in surrounding tissues.

Fasciotomy

Longitudinal incisions made in the fascia to release severe swelling or stricture which can result in necrosis.

Full thickness graft --- FTSG

A skin graft composed of the epidermis and dermis.

Hydrodressing

A dressing impregnated with a water based gel. This type of dressing prevents the wound from drying.

Hypertrophic scar

A raised scar characterized by excess collagen.

Implant

A synthetic, natural, or biosynthetic substance used to fill in or replace an anatomical structure.

Keloid

A hypertrophic scar occurring in dark skinned individuals. The scar may become bulbous and usually does not reduce over time.

Mohs surgery

A procedure in which a malignant tissue mass is removed and cut into quadrants before frozen section. These quadrants are used to map the tumor and determine the exact location of malignant margins.

Photodamage

Damage to the skin caused by ultraviolet light.

Plication

Folding of tissue and securing it in place surgically.

Porcine

Derived from pig tissue.

Ptosis

Drooping or sagging or any anatomical structure.

Split thickness - or partial thickness - skin graft STSG

A skin graft that consists of the epidermis and a portion of the papillary dermis.

Synthetic grafts

Grafts derived from synthetic material compatible with body tissue. Synthetic grafts may be soft, semisolid, or liquid.

Undermine

A surgical technique in which a plane of tissue is created or an existing tissue plane is lifted, such as skin from the fascia.

Xenograft

A graft made up of tissue taken from one species and grafted into another species ---- a porcine graft implanted in human tissue.

Mammoplasty

is performed to change the size of the breast. May be performed to reconstruct the breast without impalnts.

Rytidectomy

is performed to rejuvenate the aging face.

There are two types of sweat glands:

1. apocrine 2. eccrine

Three layers of skin:

1. Stratum corneum 2. Stratum granulosum 3. Stratum germinativum

Stratum germinativum is composed of two layers

1. Stratum spinosum 2. Stratum basale

Betadine

used for liposuction or burns.

pHisoHex and Hibiciens

used on the face.

Head drape is used for

facial cases.

Grafts are typically taken from

the thigh.

Two types of dermatome

Mechanical and drum

The Mesher

is used to expand the size of a split thickness graft.

Two types of grafts

are biological and synthetic.

Allograft

cadaver graft

Superficial partial thickness first degree burn

Only the outer layer of the epidermis is injured. The skin is red or pink, dry, and painful to touch.

Partial thickness second degree

The epidermis and various degrees of the dermis are injured. The skin is blistered, red, and moist. The burn is very sensitive to environmental exposure and touch.

Full thickness second degree

The epidermis and full dermis are injured. These burns are characterized by a white, smooth, shiny surface with blisters and edema.

Full thickness third degree

The skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone are burned. The third degree burn is centered in an area of second degree injury. The skin may be white, brown, or black and appears waxy. There is no pain because nerves have been destroyed.

Pedicle graft

is also called a flap graft. The skin is cut but not severed, instead a flap is created and the damaged area is sewn into it. Example, no skin on fingertip and the fingertip is sewn into adjacent finger to create a graft.

Near pedicle graft is

created in adjacent tissue.

Distant pedicle graft is

created from a distal area such as a trunk for use on a limb, for example.

Blepharoplasty

is done to improve vision of the upper visual fields.

Rotational flap

would be a flap from the face, for example, where skin is cut from the cheek and rolled down to the superior area of the lips in order to get rid of a mole.

SMAS

Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System

Mentoplasty

chin augmentation

Cheiloplasty

lip augmentation

Otoplasty

Surgical recreation of the external ear.

Mammoplasty and saline

the surgical technologist will be responsible for the amount of saline that goes in. Unit of measure will be in cc's.

Mammoplastic unit will be

autoflashed with 5 cc. After that 60 cc will be injected at a time.

Pectoralis implant

the implant is placed under the muscle. Blunt dissection and electrosurgical dissection is used.

TRAM flap is

used to reconstruct the breast without the use of implants. Maybe later. Performed after mastectomy.

Liposuction

does not remove deep fat. Just flat.

Panniculectomy Abdominoplasty

Performed to remove excess abdominal wall skin and adipose tissue and tighten abdominal wall muscles. Panniculectomy is usually done after a lot of weight loss.

Pannus

Tissue apron. Patients complain of contestant rashes and sores and under the excess tissue.

Abdominoplasty

will have muscles tightened and the umbilical will be removed.

Five layers of skin

CLGSG Stratum--- corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, germinativum

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