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post and lintel

stonehenge

round arch

the Romans did not create this type of construction, but used it frequently (as in the Pont du Gard); allows for more space in between the columns because weight is distributed more gradually through the semicircular form

pointed arch

evident in European Gothic cathedrals (in the Gothic period); the purpose of this construction was to increase the height of the ceiling; weight is channeled at a steep angle into the thinner columns

dome

form of a half globe or hemisphere; examples include the Parthenon and Hagia Sophia

Cast-iron construction

skeleton and skin (if covered with an exterior material); Eiffel Tower

steel-frame construction

the skyscraper; lighter and stronger than cast iron

suspension

steel cables supported on vertical pylons; the Golden Gate Bridge

Reinforced concrete

contains iron rods that support the main material; able to create organic forms and forms that appear suspended in midair

Geodesic dome

a bubble or sphere created by a network of metal rods arranged in triangle and tetrahedrons; a skin can be added to the skeleton; created by Buckminster Fuller

Load bearing

stacking materials on top of each other; thicker and heavier at the bottom of the structure and tapering towards the top; "Stacking and piling"

Main themes of Egyptian art include:

stability, order, endurance

This Aegean culture was known for the work of their master goldsmiths

Mycenean

What is true of the Sumerians?

The culture was organized as a group of city-states; they developed cuneiform writing--the first writing; they created ziggurats out of sun-baked brick

The Parthenon...

was dedicated to the goddess Athena and housed a large sculpture of the goddess; contained Doric columns; it was NOT originally painted in dull dark colors

Through the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods of Greek art, sculpture gradually became more

emotional and expressive

Roman sculpture is more _______ than Greek and Etruscan sculpture, as evidenced by the Roman bust that depicts the head of the deceased person.

realistic

Under the reign of _______, a new, more naturalistic style of Egyptian art developed.

Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton)

All of the following cultures were Mesopotamian:

Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, and Akkadian. NOT Minoan.

The Nanna Ziggurat

is an example of Sumerian architecture; served as a temple or shrine; was made out of sun-dried brick because there were no stones in the environment

Three major cultures that preceded the Greeks in and around the Aegean Sea were the ________ cultures.

Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean.

How did the passing of the edict of tolerance in 313 affect Christian art and architecture?

Christians could worship openly (not in private houses or catacombs), so there was a need to build places of worship and we see the first churches.

How did the purpose of a Christian church differ from the purpose of a Greek temple, such as the Parthenon?

It was thought that the gods and goddesses actually lived in the Greek temples; Christianity emphasized congregational worship, so the building had to be large enough to hold a lot of people; the design of the Roman basilica was a direct influence; the general public was not allowed to enter a Greek temple

How would you describe the Byzantine style of depicting figures, as seen in the "Empress Theodora and Retinue"?

flat, abstracted, linear, and stylized

Nave

the central area of a church

What is the reliquary statue of Sainte Foy?

a statue made of gold, hammered over a wooden core and set with gems; an object that contained a relic of a saint

Which types of artwork do we see in the Early Middle Ages?

purse cover, such as the purse cover from the Sutton Hoo ship burial; illuminated manuscripts

Where do we see some of the first examples of Christian art and the beginning of the development of Christian iconography, as illustrated in the mosaic "Christ as the Sun"?

in the underground burial chambers (catacombs) or necropolis

How is the floor plan of the Byzantine church, such as San Vitale, different from Western churches that had been built?

the Byzantine church had a central floor plan; this vertically symbolized the movement from earth to the vault of heaven

Interlace

a pattern or patterns formed by intricately interwoven ribbons or bands. This type of pattern is found in illuminated manuscripts, such as the gospel book of Durrow, also on the design of the purse cover found at Sutton Hoo.

Soaring open spaces, pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, and stained glass windows are characteristic of

Gothic Cathedrals

How is Northern Renaissance art different from Renaissance art from Italy?

Northern Renaissance art could be harshly emotional (gory martyrdoms, grim crucifixions, harsh punishments for sinners); great attention to detail and surface decoration in the paintings, as seen in very precise renderings of outer appearances (less interest in structure and anatomy)

How is Sandro Botticelli's "The Birth of Venus" a Renaissance artwork?

features Roman mythological figures

This Renaissance artist was a painter, sculptor, and architect. His first patron was the wealthy banker Lorenzo de'Medici and later patrons included popes and nobility. He was 26 when he created the "David" sculpture.

Michaelangelo

What is "Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry"?

a calendar; features monthly paintings that depict seasonal activities; an illuminated prayer book

What is significant about Masaccio's painting "Trinity with the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors"?

He places the figures in a real-looking architectural space; he uses linear perspective

The following statements are true regarding the Renaissance...

the status of the artist elevates from that of a skilled tradesman to a highly esteemed and revered figure that has a divine gift; artists became interested in observing the natural world and depicting it as realistically as possible; the technique of linear perspective was developed; there is a resurgance of interest in Classical thought and aesthetics

The theme of the Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes comes from

(none of the answers were correct)

The Isenheim Altarpiece, with its gruesome details of Christ's flesh wounds, originally hung in

a hospital for patients with skin disease

Bernini's St. Teresa in Ecstasy is an excellent example of Baroque sculpture because

She is experiencing a religious vision and invited emotional connection with viewers.

In Poussin's The Ashes of Phocion, the artist placed emphasis on

calm acceptance of life's misfortunes and a classical, ideal landscape

In David's The Oath of the Horati, what message did the public take away from this painting?

Duty and sacrifice to one's country

Baroque architecture was

based on curves, complex layers, and ovals on the building facades

Genre painting in 17th century Holland focused on

scenes including ordinary people

Neoclassicism, inspired by the discovery of the city of Pompeii, was heavily influenced by

stoic philosophy and moral virtues of the Roman Republic

To choose an ancient Greek or Roman sculpture to compare to St. Teresa in Ecstasy, which would be the best candidate, judging by the effects on the viewer?

Hellenistic - Laocoon Group

What caused the shift from religious to more worldly subject matter during the 17th century?

tastes in art changed; emergence of the middle class as art patrons; religious upheaval caused many new Christian groups to reject all imagery for churches

Artemisia's painting Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes creates drama through the use of:

light and dark contrast

Fragonard's The Pursuit, a Rococo work, depicts:

a sentimental, imaginary garden

________ urged the claims of emotion, intuition, individual experience, and above all else, imagination.

Romanticism

A movement developed during the early 20th century by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque:

Cubism

A movement of the early 20th century that emphasized imagery from dreams and fantasy:

Surrealism

Impressionists:

painted outdoors; captured the play of light in nature; often painted the leisure activities of the middle class

Monet is:

an Impressionist artist

An art movement founded in Italy in 1909. It concentrated on the dynamic quality of modern technological life, emphasizing speed and movement

Futurism

Which artist was influenced by African Art and was one of the founders of Cubism?

Picasso

One of the biggest differences between Modern Art and Renaissance Art is:

the flattening of space in the composition

The 20th century art movement began in response to WWI and focused on the irrational, the non-sensical, and the chaotic.

Dada

A ___________ is artwork that shares a common philosophy, style, approach, time period, or other similarity.

movement

A movement in painting and sculpture in the 1960s and 1970s that imitated the impersonal precision and wealth of minute detail associated with photography.

Photorealism

A postmodern practice in which one artist reproduces an image created by another artist and claims it as his or her own.

Appropriation

A style of nonrepresentational painting featuring broad "fields" or areas of color

Color field painting

An art style of the 1960s, deriving its imagery from popular, mass-produced culture.

Pop art

An event staged or directed by artists and offered as art.

Happening

Another name for land art is

Earth art

Nonrepresentational painting in which the physical act of applying paint to a support in bold, spontaneous gestures supplies the expressive content.

action painting

Who is known for his video art?

Viola

Who was a graffiti artist in the late 1970s?

Basquiat

Who was an Abstract Expressionist?

Pollock

Who is artist Leon Battista Alberti?

A Renaissance architect that designed Sant'Andrea, which featured a barrell-vaulted nave; A Renaissance architect that was inspired by Roman architecture

The word "Renaissance" means

rebirth.

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