WGU DAC1 Information Systems Management

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Combination of multiple sets created by others to have all in one place for easier study.

Satisficing

a Decision making model, make a choice that is satisfactory, even if it is not the best; works for unseen issues where a decision needs to be made quickly

Association or dependency modeling

market basket analysis

Clustering

discovering how groups of people are similar

Classification

aka prediction, evaluate historical data to make current predictions

Regression

find a causal replationship between sets of data

Summarization

sums, averages, other stats

Predictive Analysis

uses infor and business analysis to build a predictive model for a given application

Text analytics

process of using statistical, artificial intelligence and linguistic techniques to convert info in textual sources into structured info (email, survey, etc)

software agent

small piece of software that acts on your behalf

Autonomous agent

can adapt and alter the manner in which it attempts to achieve its assigned task

Distributed agent

works on multiple distinct computer systems

Mobile agent

can relocate itself onto different computer systems

Intelligent agents

incorporates AI capabilities like learning and reasoning

Biomimicry

Learn how people based systems behave, predict how they will behave, improve human systems to make them more efficient and effective

Swarm intelligence

Collective behavior of groups of simple agents

Operational feasibility

does a decision fit the needs and mission of the organization

economic feasibility

Does a decision fit with the budget

Technical feasibility

Does it fit within employee skills, what about system maintenance

Human factors feasiliby

Is the decision accepted by staff

Legal and political feasibility

does it comply with laws?

Systems design

Once logical model is finished, translate into appropriate information technologies

UI design

User interface, keep end user in mind, get feedback from users to create clear, intuitive controls

Data design

User doesn't see it, analyst identifies the underlying structures of the system

Process design

Flow of application logic is determined; can't be overly complicated

Prototyping

Sample of final design, users try it and give feedback

End-user development

let users themselves create what they need; IT support is crucial!

ERP Requirements

modular, contralized database, integrated functions, flexible best practices, real time functions, internet enabled

Web 2.0

2nd generation of web focusing on online collaboration, users as both crators and modifiers of content

static information

early web; users started internet, went to a website, found what they wanted

Pushed static info

Websites provided static info (SPAM)

Pulled dynamic info

Late 1990, search for real time info, like stocks, travel sites; birth of e-commerce

Push dynamic info

today's web; tailored to individual needs; RSS, personalized recommendations (shopping carts, etc.)

Massive Multi Player Online Role Playing Games

ex world of warcraft

Data resource management

database structures and how info is linked through primary keys

hierarchical database

Tree style with root nodes and child nodes; not easy to query

Network database

more flexible than hierarchical, data defined in sets, must define ALL potential relationships ahead of time

Object oriented database

abstract related pieces of information into units; can easily be extended, promotes reuse of existing database architecture

Relational database

most common; data presented as a series of values in 2-dimensions called tables; can create several relationships

Operational database

necessary for operation of business; ex HR personnel

Distributed database

stores info across many systems; fault toleratnt because data is stored in several places

External database

exists outside your direct control; fee based; ex marketing database

Hypermedia database

media based database; ex youtube

Keys

ways to access data, such as last name or phone number

Primary key

uniquely identifies only one key, ex employee id

Multi table relationships

use different tables to keep track of various features of the same person

Query

process of requresting info out of a database

Redundance

goal is to remove this, making it easier to keep a database organized

Normalization

process of removing redundancy and ensuring consistency

Database management system

create databases, manage users, general maintenance, makes it user friendly

structured query language

uses relational databases to look for info

Information systems

Combination of implementing data storage, processing, and communicating hardware

Information technology

Entire process of collecting, storing, processing, securing, disseminating information, not just computers

Management Information systems

Use to manage business processes in a business/department for decision making, managing data, people, and projects

Porter's Five Forces

existing competition, threat of new entrants, power of buyers, power of suppliers, threat of substitution

Cost leadership

lower price for same or better quality than competitors

Differentiation

Offer a product that is new and different

Focus

target a specific customer segment with a certain type of product

Systems Analysis

Figures out how hardware, software, network, people, data, and information work together

Strategic management

focuses on overall direction and guidance

Tactical management

develops goals and strategies

Operational management

day to day operations

Non-management

perform daily tasks

coarse granualrity

info based on summaries of time periods; used by strategic management

Topline competitive advantage

focus on increasing revenue

Synergy

Where people, information, and technology come together

Business Intelligence

Collective info about customers, competitors, business partners, competitive environment, own internal operations; used to make effective strategic decisions

Quality

Timeliness, location, form, validity

Upward information flow

Moves from the actual information up to upper management. Ex, selling a product, flows to different departments

Fine granularity

Info based on specific details

Downward information flow

Directives from upper management

Horizontal information flow

Between departments and functional work teams

Out/In information flow

Info to and from customers, supplyers, partners; yields competitive advantage

Internal

specific operational aspects of an organization

External

What's going on in the enfironment surrounding the organization

Objective

raw facts and data, can be quantified

subjective

describes something; interpreted data

Break even analysis

Determining at what point the financial impact of a resource becomes reasonable

Fixed cost

expenses that never change (ie rent)

Variable

costs that change to acquire and product the product

Revenue

How much you sell a product for

Recommendation engines

based on likes, dislikes, past purchases

Long-tail economics

niche products

Run-Grow-Transform

Cost leadership to simply exist, focus and differentiate to increase market, innovative project to find a new market

Competitive business strategies

Cost leadership, differentiation, innovation, growth, alliance

Enterprise Businss Systems

Custom built to meet specific needs of an organization; very expensive, work to integrate internal processes with external entitites

Cross functional systems

Transcends different divisions to change how info is used and increase efficiency by eliminating redundancy

Enterprise Resource planning

Connects different departments

Customer resource management

focus on customer relationship/info about customers

Knowledge management

centralized mechanisms for storing and querying info

Partner relationship management

Relationship between business and channel partners

Supply Chain management

Improve process of obtaining sourece materials, manufacturing, delivery, manages entire life cycle of a product

Functional business Systems

Support business operations; accounging, marketing, HR, etc.

Human Resource management

Keep track of employees, skills, PD, achievements; identify staffing needs

Sell-Source-Ship

Alternative to distribution chain; helps reduce fixed costs due to less storage space and wasted product

Supply Chain management system

tracks inventory and informtion among business processes

Just in time manufacturing

method for delivering product at the exact time a customer wants; ex target having products on shelves so all a customer has to do is buy it

Information Partnership

2 or more companies cooperate by integrating IT systems, offereing customers the best of what each can offer

Multi channel service delivery

a company's offering multiple ways in which they interact with customers; ex email, fax, phone, web

Customer resource management system

not just software; total business objective; hardware, servers, support, etc

Sales force automation systems

automatically trachs steps in sales process; contact management, empower sales reps

Software as a service

delivery model for software where a company only pays for what it uses; like Cloud; reduces fixed costs

Materials Requirement Planning

Management knew what was needed when

Materials Requirement Planning II

included MRP and accounging and finance

Decision support system

Helps make decisions

Legacy Information Systems

massive long-term business investment in a software system with a single focus; often brittle, slow

Intelligence

diagnostic pahse - detect and interpret that something needs attention

Design

develop as many solutions as possible

Choice

examine options and select one

Implementation

apply selected option, monitor results, make corrections

Graphin information system

DSS method, displays map-based infor

Moden management

representation of a situation, statistical models or equations

Data management

database to organize and store info

User interface

the way for the decision maker to interact with the system

structured query language

Info is processed to give correct answer

Unstructured

several indefinate answers

Semmi-structured

some measurable elements, some not measurable

Quality and Types of information

Time, content, form

Analytical modeling

various scenarios are run mathematically, so decisions can be made (computers do this)

Sensitivity Analysis

Change one variable and see how the others change

Goal seeking analysis

makes repeated changes to variables until a chosen value is reached

Optimization analysis

finds optimal value given certain constraints

Filtering

hide data that don't matter

Conditional formatting

highlights individual cells that match criteria

Pivot table

summarizes by sorting, counting, totalling cells

Data mining

computer searches large quantities of data for unseen patterns

Artificial Intelligence

making systems that can imitate aspects of human resoning and motion, ex weather prediction

Expert systems

designed to apply human like reasoning to reach a conclusion

Neural networks

attempts to simulate human ability to classify items and recognize patterns, ex handwriting and speech recognition

Fuzzy logic

mathematical models for forming conclusions from vague information ex spam filters

Genetic algorithms

trian and error to develot increasingly better solutions to a problem

Intelligent agents

ex auto fill boxes

Virtual reality

simulation of the physical world, ex flight simulators

Online Analytical Processing

BI info about customers; uses analytics, integratd use of technology tools and stats to create real-time high quality info

Data dictionary

contains logical structure for the info in a database

Demand prediction

how much of something will be needed

Replenishment frequency

when to move products and where

Basic reporting

everyday stuff

Integrity Constraints

rules that help ensure the quality of the information

Data definition subsystem

helps create and maintain data dictionary and define structure of files in a database

Data manipulation subsystem

helps add, change, and delete info in a database and query it

View

helps see contents, make changes, sort, query

Report generators

quickly define formats of reports

Query by example tools

graphically design answer to a question

Data generation sybsystem

contains facilities to help develop transaction-intensive applications

Data admin subsystem

manage overall data base enfironment like security, backup/recovery

Data mining

a logical collection of information gathered from many different operational databases, used to create business intelligence

Open systems

hardwar and software standards that make it possible for many different devices to communicate

website

specific location

website address

unique name to identify a specific site

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