philosophy 102 test 1

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2nd test is 6/29

Who was Aristotle a student of?

Plato

When did Aristotle enter the Academy?

18

What is Aristotle's book in the form of? (dialogue, notes....)

lecture notes

From what lineage is Aristotle from?

Greek

What was Aristotle always considered to be?

an outsider

What did field did Aristotle start?

Science

Who did Aristotle teach?

Alexander the Great

What did Aristotle create?

School of his own

What did Aristotle believe?

Everything aims for the good

Explain Aristotle's statement "Everything aims at the good".

everything has its own place and purpose

What did Socrates and Plato believe the Universe was created by?

God

What did Socrates and Plato believe the soul was?

immortal

What did Socrates and Plato believe about virtue?

it is natural

What was the name Aristotle gave to God?

Prime Mover

What did Aristotle believe the Universe was created by?

not created
simply exists

What did Aristotle believe the highest part of the soul was?

Immortality

In Aristotle's Point of View was virtue natural or unnatural?

neither

What was Aristotles mode of expression?

Thematic Presentation Dialectic

What did Epicurus believe about the universe?

coming to be and the passing away of the universe

What did Epicurus believe the God made up of?

atoms

What did Epicurus believe was the highest part of the soul?

immortality

What did Epicurus believe was the most important virtue?

Moral virtue

What are Aristotle's 4 Substances of the Universe?

Immovable Substance
Sensible imperishable substance
Sensible Perishable substance
Final Cause

List a few features of the Prime Mover?

immaterial
immortal
eternal
non-spatial
non-temporal
grand intuition
immutable
pure form
pure good

What is Sensible Substance composed of?

matter

What is matter composed of?

earth
fire
wind
water

What are the 3 parts of matter?

Matter
Privation
Form

Describe Sensible Perishable substance.

Changes over time

What are the 4 types of change?

movement
qualitative
Quantitative
Substantive

What are 2 subdivisions of change?

Artificial
Natural

What is Artificial Change affected by?

Humans
Animals

What is natural change affected by?

Sun
Nature

What are the 4 causes without which change would not be said to occur?

Material
Formal
Efficient
Final

Greek word for Material Cause

Hyle

Describe Material cause

nothing more than matter

Greek word for Formal Cause

Morphe

Describe Formal Cause

form or shape of a thing

Greek word for Efficient cause

Kinan

Describe Efficient Cause

causative agent of change

What are 2 types of Causative Energy of Change? (Efficient Cause)

Internal
External

Describe Internal Causative energy of change.

can be alive
all things equal
motivated from within
purposiveness according to quantum being

Greek Word for Final Cause

Telos

Describe Final Cause

all things aim for End

What did the Prime Mover not create?

The Universe

The universe moves in perfect....

circulation

Each planet and star has a ...

soul

Define Kosmos

beautiful comportment of the heavenly bodies

What kind of intuition does the Prime Mover have?

Grand

What does Aristotle believe is the master art?

Politics

Why is Politics the master art?

looks for good of whole community

What type of people should study Aristotle?

Judges
those who regulate their desires and actions

What type of people should not study Aristotle?

Immature

What did Aristotle Seek to understand?

Highest good attainable by action

Define Eudaimonia.

Happiness/ well being

What does absolute good bring according to Aristotle?

happiness

What sort of life is one of Eudaimonia?

life of pleasure
political life
contemplative life

Refer to page 6 in notes for Procedure graph

notes

Define Pathe

irrational movements of the soul

Happiness comes from knowing what?

yourself

Wealth is simply a means to what?

something else

What is the Highest level of soul for Humans?

Rational Faculty

2 parts of Rational Faculty

Reason Proper
Conscience

Highest level of soul for animals

Sensitive Faculty of Soul

Lowest level of soul

Vegetative Faculty of Soul

Refer to page 7 in notes for Levels of soul chart

notes

Greek word for theoretical knowledge

theoria

define Theoretical knowledge

culmination of knowledge found in reason proper

Greek word for Practical Knowledge

pharmesis

Define Pharmesis

prudence

Define Practical Knowledge

focus on ethics/ moral conduct

Greek word for Productive Knowledge

Techne

Define Productive knowledge

means to making something useful or beautiful

virtue of Reason Proper

Intellectual

Virtue of Conscience

Moral Virtue

Define Conscience

where one acts using practical or ethical knowledge

What did Aristotle seek?

to find a means to an end

What did Aristotle want a human being to be?

self sufficient

What is Aristotles definition of happiness

eudaimonia

define Eudaimonia according to Aristotle

is an activity of the soul in accordance with highest form [perfect] virtue in a complete life

What must Reason proper be exercised with?

Conscience

Give Aristotle's definition of Moral Virtue

Reflects the excellences of the mind/ excellences of character

Refer to bottom of page 9, top of 10

notes

4 Aspects of Thematic Expression of Aristotle

Premise
Purpose
Practical Knowledge
Procedure

Define Dialectic

Gathering of a large body of knowledge and breaking it down and reattaching information to new information creating your own perspective

Define Premise

all things aim for good

define purpose

why all things aim for good

define practical knowledge

general truths

Aristotle's final definition of Moral Virtue

A state of character concerned with choice that choice which lies in a mean that is to say, a mean relative to us, that mean being determined by a Rational Principle , that rational principle having been discovered by a person of practical knowledge

Moral virtue is a state of...

character

Who is epicurus?

greek philosopher

Who did Epicurus study under?

Plato

What did Epicurus establish in 2 places?

schools

Who did Epicurus allow to study philosophy?

women
wlaves

Who's POV did Epicurus adopt

Aristotle

Define Atarxia

harmonious state of the soul

Look at page 12 for chart

notes

3 basic principles that undergird morality ( Ataraxia)

easily sated natural and necessary desires
choose to avoid natural but unnecessary desires
avoid fulfilling unnatural and unnecessary desires

2 Parts of Psychological Calm

Fear of Death
Fear of the Gods

Define Fear of death

where death is we are not
when death comes we do not exist

Define Fear of the Gods

atomistic theory
gods are made up of atoms
gods have nothing to do with us

Define Environmental Calm

Every human being has to have a time for leisure

Define Profligate

to be obsessed with the fulfillment of the desires of the senses

What does Profligate provide freedom from

pain of body, lust

What does Epicurus believe the greatest good is

prudence

Living the pleasurable life is materially equivalent to...

living the moral life

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