EMT Class Ch. 8: Respiratory anatomy and Physiology

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Sean Thompson

What is one of the most common symptoms of respiratory emergencies?

Shortness of breath

Why do respiratory symptoms present similarly?

Mostly due to the body's attempt to improve breathing adequately

Respiratory distress

Increased respiratory effort caused by impaired respiratory function.

Hypoxemia

Decreased oxygen levels in the blood.

What are the two major sections of the respiratory system?

The upper airway and the lower airway.

Trachea

The tube-like structure that leads from the larynx to the lungs.

oxygen enters through the mouth and the nose and is carried by what to the lungs???

Oxygen enters through the mouth and nose and is carried by the trachea into the lungs

epiglottis

A small leaf-shaped cartilaginous tissue that covers the opening of the larynx to keep food or liquid from entering the trachea and lungs.

What is the purpose of the respiratory system?

To exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli.

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs at the?

alveolar/capillary membrane.

Respiration relies on two key components of the brain-stem which are?

The two components are the medulla oblongata and the pons.

When you breathe in how much O2 percentage do you take in?

21%

What happens to the carbon dioxide that leaves the tissues?

It diffuses into the blood stream, and is returned to the alveoli and is exhaled.

Inadequate ventilation

This happens when pulmonary circulation is adequate but the amount of oxygen delivered to the alveoli for diffusion is inadequate.

Inadequate perfusion

occurs when ventilation is fine but the perfusion (blood being delivered through the body is bad.

What does the Sternocleidomastoid muscles do?
in terms of inhalation

is the muscle that lifts the sternum upward.

What does the Scalene muscle do?
in terms of inhalation

is the muscle that elevates ribs 1 and 2

What does the Pectoralis minor do?
In terms of inhalation

Is the muscle that elevates ribs 3 and 5

What are the three muscles that are used for inhalation?

The sternocleidomastoid muscles, scalene muscles, perctoralis minor

What do the Abdominal muscles do? In terms of exhalation

contract and increase the pressure the pressure in the thoracic cavity so gas will move into the atmosphere and out of the lungs.

What do the internal intercostal muscles do in terms of exhalation?

contract and pull the sternum & ribs downward.

What is respiratory compromise?

Any disruption in adequate perfusion or ventilation.

What is respiratory distress?

Increased respiratory effort caused by impaired respiratory function.

What is Respiratory failure?

When respiratory compensatory mechanisms begin to fail and respiration becomes inadequate.

What is Respiratory arrest?

Complete stoppage of breathing; also called apnea

What is Apnea?

Absence of breathing; respiratory arrest

What is Dyspnea?

Is the shortness of breath or precieved difficulty in breathing.

What is the Tripod Position?

When a patient is leaned forward while sitting or standing, and they place their hands on a hard surface or on their knees.

What is hypoxia?

The absence of sufficient oxygen in the body cells.

What is Bronchoconstriction?

Constriction of the smooth muscle of the Bronchi and bronchioles that cause a narrowing of the air passage.

What is a bronchodilator?

A drug that relaxes the smooth muscle of the Bronchi and bronchioles which reverses bronchoconstriction.

Metered dose inhaler (MDI)

A device that consits of a plastic container and a canister of medication used to form an aerosolize that a patient can inhale.

Bradychardia

Is a pulse, heart rate less than 60.

Cyanosis

Is the blue-gray color of the mucus membrane, skin that indicates hypoxia.

Early signs of hhypoxia

pale cool clamy skin, tahycardia, elevated blood presuure, agitation,
altered mental status,
headache,

Sever signs of hypoxia

bradychardia, cyanosis, confusion, cordination problems, sleepiness, altered mental status.

What is Pulses paradoxus?

A decrease in pulse strength during inhalation. Which means the pressure in the chest due to inhalation is stopping the ventricles in the heart to fill.

What is Snoring?

Tongue partiallly blocking the upper aiway at the level of the pharynx.

What is Gurgling?

fluid in the upper airway

What is stridor or crowing?

Partial obstruction of the upper airway at the level of the larynx.

What is Wheezing?

constriction and inflammation reducing the diameter of the bronchioles in the lungs.

What is Rales?

Fluid surrounding and filling the alveoli

What is Rhonci?

Mucus blocking a the larger bronchioles.

Which sounds can be heard without a stethoscope?

Snoring, Gurguling, Stridor or Crowing

Which sounds can be heard with a stethoscope?

Wheezing, Rales, Rhonci

What is polypharmacy?

When a patient takes multiple medications at home.

In what kind of patients is it difficult to tell what normal breathing sounds like?

Geriatric patients

Small-volume nebulizer (SVN)

A device that uses compressed air or oxygen to nebulize a liquid medication into a mist that a patient can inhale.

Spacer

A chamber that is connected to an MDI (metered dose inhaler) to collect the medication unit it is inhaled.

What should you do before removing the cap of a meterd-dose inhaler?

Shake it well for 30 seconds.

When the patient inhales the medication from the MDI canister what should you tell him to do?

Coach the patient to hold his breath.

What are side effects from taking a MDI?

Heart rate, tremors and nervousness.

What are the five rights of medication administration?

1) Right medication of drug
2) Right dose
3) Right route
4) Right time
5) Medication has not expired

What is the LPM for a nebulizer.

6 LPM

How many viles of albuterol go into a nebulizer.

1 vile

A spacer is benefical because it helps the medicine to get into the patient's system faster? T or F

False

Circulatory system

System composed of the heart and blood vessels which bring oxygen and nutrients to and take waste away from body cells. Also called cardiovascular system.

Cardiac conduction system

The specialized contractile and conductive tissues of the heart that generate electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat. Also called Coronary conduction system.

Automaticity

The ability of cells within the cardiac conduction system to generate a cardiac impulse on their own.

Arteries

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

Veins

Veins that carry deoxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.

Capillaries

Tiny blood vessels that connects an arteriole to a venule

Arteriole

The smallest branch of an artery which at its distal end leads into a capillary.

Venule

The smallest branch of a vein.

What are the two upper chambers of the heart

The left and right atria.

What are the two lower chambers of the heart?

The left and right ventricle.

The pace maker of the heart is called "____"

The sinoatrial node.

Their is three exceptions to the rule that states "arteries carry oxygenated blood" what are they?

The pulmonary artery and the pulmonary vein and the umbilical cord.

What does the pulmonary valve do?

The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle into the lungs

What does the pulmonary vein do?

It carries oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium.

Why is the umbilical cord an exception to the artery rule?

The umbilical cord has two veins one artery and the veins carry oxygenated blood while the artery carries deoxygenated blood.

What are the four components of blood?

Red blood cells, white blood cells, Plasma, Platelets

What do red blood cells, (erythocrytes) do?

They give the blood it's color, carries oxygen to body cells, and carries carbon dioxide away from body cells.

What do white blood cells, (leukocytes) do?

Part of the blood that helps the body's immune system to defend against infection

what is plasma?

The liquid part of the blood

What are Platelets?

Blood components that are essential to the formation of blood cells.

What does the Sinoatrial (SA) node do?

It sets the heart to beat between 60-100 beats per minute.

What does the atrioventricular node do?

If the SA node fails the AV node takes over and sets the rate of the heart to beat 40-60 times per minute.

What does the Purkinje fibers do?

Once the Av node fails the Purkinje fibers will be the pacemaker for 20-40 beats per minute.

Where do electrical impulses start in the heart?

They start in the atrium go to the ventricle in a Superior to inferior fashion.

what does an electrocardiogram do?

A (ECG or EKG) is a graphic respresentation of the electrical activity within the heart.

What are Dysrhythmias?

Dysrythmias can decrease the amount of blood that is pumped into the heart.

Cardiac arrest

If the heart doesn't get enough oxygen a heart attack may result.

What does Fibrinolytic therapy do?

Fibrinolytic therapy helps to dissolve clots by blocking the coronary artery. You must get a past pertinent medical history because this could cause life threatening hemorrhage if they had a recent stroke or major trauma.

What is different about diabetic cardiac patients?

They may not display common symptoms such as chest paint, SOB Etc... You always want ALS quicker for a diabetic cardiac event.

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