Why do respiratory symptoms present similarly?
Mostly due to the body's attempt to improve breathing adequately
oxygen enters through the mouth and the nose and is carried by what to the lungs???
Oxygen enters through the mouth and nose and is carried by the trachea into the lungs
A small leaf-shaped cartilaginous tissue that covers the opening of the larynx to keep food or liquid from entering the trachea and lungs.
What is the purpose of the respiratory system?
To exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli.
Respiration relies on two key components of the brain-stem which are?
The two components are the medulla oblongata and the pons.
What happens to the carbon dioxide that leaves the tissues?
It diffuses into the blood stream, and is returned to the alveoli and is exhaled.
This happens when pulmonary circulation is adequate but the amount of oxygen delivered to the alveoli for diffusion is inadequate.
occurs when ventilation is fine but the perfusion (blood being delivered through the body is bad.
What does the Sternocleidomastoid muscles do?
in terms of inhalation
is the muscle that lifts the sternum upward.
What are the three muscles that are used for inhalation?
The sternocleidomastoid muscles, scalene muscles, perctoralis minor
What do the Abdominal muscles do? In terms of exhalation
contract and increase the pressure the pressure in the thoracic cavity so gas will move into the atmosphere and out of the lungs.
What do the internal intercostal muscles do in terms of exhalation?
contract and pull the sternum & ribs downward.
What is Respiratory failure?
When respiratory compensatory mechanisms begin to fail and respiration becomes inadequate.
What is the Tripod Position?
When a patient is leaned forward while sitting or standing, and they place their hands on a hard surface or on their knees.
What is Bronchoconstriction?
Constriction of the smooth muscle of the Bronchi and bronchioles that cause a narrowing of the air passage.
What is a bronchodilator?
A drug that relaxes the smooth muscle of the Bronchi and bronchioles which reverses bronchoconstriction.
Metered dose inhaler (MDI)
A device that consits of a plastic container and a canister of medication used to form an aerosolize that a patient can inhale.
Early signs of hhypoxia
pale cool clamy skin, tahycardia, elevated blood presuure, agitation,
altered mental status,
Sever signs of hypoxia
bradychardia, cyanosis, confusion, cordination problems, sleepiness, altered mental status.
What is Pulses paradoxus?
A decrease in pulse strength during inhalation. Which means the pressure in the chest due to inhalation is stopping the ventricles in the heart to fill.
What is Wheezing?
constriction and inflammation reducing the diameter of the bronchioles in the lungs.
In what kind of patients is it difficult to tell what normal breathing sounds like?
Small-volume nebulizer (SVN)
A device that uses compressed air or oxygen to nebulize a liquid medication into a mist that a patient can inhale.
A chamber that is connected to an MDI (metered dose inhaler) to collect the medication unit it is inhaled.
When the patient inhales the medication from the MDI canister what should you tell him to do?
Coach the patient to hold his breath.
What are the five rights of medication administration?
1) Right medication of drug
2) Right dose
3) Right route
4) Right time
5) Medication has not expired
A spacer is benefical because it helps the medicine to get into the patient's system faster? T or F
System composed of the heart and blood vessels which bring oxygen and nutrients to and take waste away from body cells. Also called cardiovascular system.
Cardiac conduction system
The specialized contractile and conductive tissues of the heart that generate electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat. Also called Coronary conduction system.
The ability of cells within the cardiac conduction system to generate a cardiac impulse on their own.
Their is three exceptions to the rule that states "arteries carry oxygenated blood" what are they?
The pulmonary artery and the pulmonary vein and the umbilical cord.
What does the pulmonary valve do?
The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle into the lungs
Why is the umbilical cord an exception to the artery rule?
The umbilical cord has two veins one artery and the veins carry oxygenated blood while the artery carries deoxygenated blood.
What do red blood cells, (erythocrytes) do?
They give the blood it's color, carries oxygen to body cells, and carries carbon dioxide away from body cells.
What do white blood cells, (leukocytes) do?
Part of the blood that helps the body's immune system to defend against infection
What does the atrioventricular node do?
If the SA node fails the AV node takes over and sets the rate of the heart to beat 40-60 times per minute.
What does the Purkinje fibers do?
Once the Av node fails the Purkinje fibers will be the pacemaker for 20-40 beats per minute.
Where do electrical impulses start in the heart?
They start in the atrium go to the ventricle in a Superior to inferior fashion.
what does an electrocardiogram do?
A (ECG or EKG) is a graphic respresentation of the electrical activity within the heart.
What does Fibrinolytic therapy do?
Fibrinolytic therapy helps to dissolve clots by blocking the coronary artery. You must get a past pertinent medical history because this could cause life threatening hemorrhage if they had a recent stroke or major trauma.