Chapter 10: Classification of Microorganisms

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Microbiology: An Introduction, 10e (Tortora et al.)

Answer: D

Which of the following statements about archaea is false?
A) They are prokaryotes.
B) They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
C) Some are thermoacidophiles; others are extreme halophiles.
D) They evolved before bacteria.
E) Some produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

Answer: C

Which of the following characterizes the Domain Bacteria?
A) Prokaryotic cells; ether linkages in phospholipids
B) Eukaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids
C) Prokaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids
D) Complex cellular structures
E) Multicellular

Answer: B

If two organisms have similar rRNA sequences, you can conclude that
A) They live in the same place.
B) They evolved from a common ancestor.
C) They will have different G-C ratios.
D) They will both ferment lactose.
E) They mated with each other.

Answer: B

What is the outstanding characteristic of the Kingdom Fungi?
A) All members are photosynthetic.
B) Members absorb dissolved organic matter.
C) Members absorb dissolved inorganic matter.
D) All members are microscopic.
E) All members are macroscopic.

Answer: D

Which of the following statements about the members of the Kingdom Plantae is false?
A) They are multicellular.
B) They have eukaryotic cells.
C) They can photosynthesize.
D) They use organic carbon sources.
E) They use inorganic energy sources.

Answer: C

Which of the following statements about the members of the Kingdom Animalia is false?
A) They are multicellular.
B) They have eukaryotic cells.
C) They can photosynthesize.
D) They use organic carbon sources.
E) They use organic energy sources.

Answer: B

A genus can best be defined as
A) A taxon composed of families.
B) A taxon composed of one or more species and below family.
C) A taxon belonging to a species.
D) A taxon comprised of classes.
E) The most specific taxon.

Answer: D

A bacterial species differs from a species of eukaryotic organisms in that a bacterial species
A) Does not breed with other species.
B) Has a limited geographical distribution.
C) Can be distinguished from other bacterial species.
D) Is a population of cells with similar characteristics.
E) Breeds with its own species.

Answer: B

Which of the following is the best evidence for a three-domain system?
A) There are three distinctly different types of ribosomes.
B) There are three distinctly different cellular chemical compositions.
C) There are three distinctly different Gram reactions.
D) Some bacteria live in extreme environments.
E) There are three distinctly different types of nuclei.

Answer: D

Biochemical tests are used to determine
A) Staining characteristics.
B) Amino acid sequences.
C) Nucleic acid-base composition.
D) Enzymatic activities.
E) All of the above.

Answer: D

Which of the following is NOT based on nucleic-acid hybridization?
A) DNA chip
B) FISH
C) PCR
D) Southern blotting
E) Western blotting

Answer: C

The phylogenetic classification of bacteria is based on
A) Cell morphology.
B) Gram reaction.
C) rRNA sequences.
D) Habitat.
E) Diseases.

Answer: D

Which of the following statements is NOT a reason for classifying viruses in the three domains rather than in a fourth domain?
A) Some viruses can incorporate their genome into a host's genome.
B) Viruses direct anabolic pathways of host cells.
C) Viruses are obligate parasites.
D) Viruses are not composed of cells.
E) None of the above.

Answer: E

Which of the following provides taxonomic information that includes the others?
A) Nucleic acid hybridization
B) Nucleic acid-base composition
C) Amino acid sequencing
D) Biochemical tests
E) Cladogram

Answer: D

Fossil evidence indicates that prokaryotic cells first existed on the Earth
A) 350 years ago.
B) 3500 years ago.
C) 3.5 million years ago.
D) 3.5 billion years ago.
E) 3.5 × 1012 years ago.

Answer: D

In Figure 10.1, species "c." is most closely related to
A) a
B) b
C) c
D) d
E) e

Answer: E

In Figure 10.1, the closest ancestor for both species "a." and species "b." would be
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

Answer: E

Protist is a diverse group of organisms that are similar in
A) rRNA sequences.
B) Metabolic type.
C) Motility.
D) Ecology.
E) None of the above.

Answer: B

In the scientific name Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter is the
A) Specific epithet.
B) Genus.
C) Family.
D) Order.
E) Kingdom.

Answer: A

The arrangement of organisms into taxa
A) Shows degrees of relatedness between organisms.
B) Shows relationships to common ancestors.
C) Was designed by Charles Darwin.
D) Is arbitrary.
E) Is based on evolution.

Answer: D

Bacteria and archaea are similar in which of the following?
A) Peptidoglycan cell walls
B) Methionine as the start signal for protein synthesis
C) Sensitivity to antibiotics
D) Possessing prokaryotic cells
E) Plasma membrane ester linkage

Answer: D

Which of the following best defines a strain?
A) A population of cells that differs from other members of the species
B) A group of organisms with a limited geographical distribution
C) A pure culture
D) A group of cells all derived from a single parent
E) The same as a species

Answer: B

Serological testing is based on the fact that
A) All bacteria have the same antigens.
B) Antibodies react specifically with an antigen.
C) The human body makes antibodies against bacteria.
D) Antibodies cause the formation of antigens.
E) Bacteria clump together when mixed with any antibodies.

Answer: C

Phage typing is based on the fact that
A) Bacteria are destroyed by viruses.
B) Viruses cause disease.
C) Bacterial viruses attack specific cells.
D) Staphylococcus causes infections.
E) Phages and bacteria are related.

Answer: B

Organism A has 70 moles % G+C, and organism B has 40 moles % G+C. Which of the following can be concluded from these data?
A) The two organisms are related.
B) The two organisms are unrelated.
C) The organisms make entirely different enzymes.
D) Their nucleic acids will not hybridize.
E) None of the above.

Answer: C

Nucleic acid hybridization is based on the fact that
A) The strands of DNA can be separated.
B) A chromosome is composed of complementary strands.
C) Pairing between complementary bases occurs.
D) DNA is composed of genes.
E) All cells have DNA.

Answer: E

One of the most popular taxonomic tools is DNA fingerprinting to develop profiles of organisms. These profiles provide direct information about
A) Enzymatic activities.
B) Protein composition.
C) The presence of specific genes.
D) Antigenic composition.
E) Nucleotide sequences.

Answer: D

Which of the following statements is NOT a reason why fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a valuable tool for environmental microbiologists?
A) It allows for detection of uncultured microbes.
B) It demonstrates the diversity of microbes in an environment.
C) It allows observation of microbes in their natural environment in association with other microbes.
D) To obtain pure cultures of microbes.
E) All of the above.

Answer: B

Which of the following criteria is most useful in determining whether two organisms are related?
A) Both ferment lactose.
B) Both are gram-positive.
C) Both are motile.
D) Both are aerobic.
E) All are equally important.

Answer: A

A clone is
A) Genetically identical cells derived from a single cell.
B) A genetically engineered cell.
C) A taxon composed of species.
D) A mound of cells on an agar medium.
E) None of the above.

Answer: B

Figure 10.2
A nucleic acid hybridization experiment produced the following results.
31) In Figure 10.2, which figure shows the most closely related organisms?
A) a
B) b
C) c
D) d
E) e

Answer: D

Table 10.1
1. 9+2 flagella
2. Nucleus
3. Plasma membrane
4. Peptidoglycan
5. Mitochondrion
6. Fimbriae

32) In Table 10.1, which features are found in all Eukarya?
A) 2, 3, 5
B) 1, 4, 6
C) 3, 5
D) 2, 3
E) 1, 2, 5

Answer: B

Table 10.1
1. 9+2 flagella
2. Nucleus
3. Plasma membrane
4. Peptidoglycan
5. Mitochondrion
6. Fimbriae

In Table 10.1, which feature(s) is (are) found only in prokaryotes?
A) 1, 2, 3
B) 4, 6
C) 2
D) 1
E) 2, 4, 5

Answer: A

Figure 10.3
This figure shows the results of a gel electrophoresis separation of restriction fragments of the DNA of different organisms.

In Figure 10.3, which two are most closely related?
A) 1 and 3
B) 2 and 4
C) 3 and 5
D) 2 and 5
E) 4 and 5

Answer: B

Into which group would you place a photosynthetic cell that lacks a nucleus?
A) Animalia
B) Bacteria
C) Fungi
D) Plantae
E) Protista

Answer: D

Into which group would you place a multicellular heterotroph with chitin cell walls?
A) Animalia
B) Archaea
C) Bacteria
D) Fungi
E) Plantae

Answer: B

You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan. You suspect the organism is in the group
A) Animalia.
B) Archaea.
C) Bacteria.
D) Fungi.
E) Plantae.
Answer: B

Answer: B

Into which group would you place a unicellular organism that has 70S ribosomes and a peptidoglycan cell wall?
A) Animalia
B) Bacteria
C) Fungi
D) Plantae
E) Protist

Answer: A

Table 10.2
Use the dichotomous key in Table 10.2 to identify a gram-negative rod that ferments lactose and uses citric acid as its sole carbon source.
A) Citrobacter
B) Escherichia
C) Lactobacillus
D) Pseudomonas
E) Staphylococcus

Answer: A

Use the dichotomous key in Table 10.2 to identify a gram-negative coccus.
A) Neisseria
B) Pseudomonas
C) Staphylococcus
D) Streptococcus
E) Micrococcus

Answer: A

Into which group would you place a multicellular organism that has a mouth and lives inside the human liver?
A) Animalia
B) Fungi
C) Plantae
D) Firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria)
E) Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)

Answer: E

Into which group would you place a photosynthetic organism that lacks a nucleus and has a thin peptidoglycan wall surrounded by an outer membrane?
A) Animalia
B) Fungi
C) Plantae
D) Firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria)
E) Proteobacteria (gram-negative bacteria)

Answer: B

In the cladogram shown in Figure 10.4, which two organisms are most closely related?
A) Streptomyces and Micrococcus
B) Micrococcus and Mycobacterium
C) Mycobacterium and Lactobacillus
D) Streptomyces and Lactobacillus
E) Streptomyces and Mycobacterium

Answer: C

Which of the following characteristics indicates that two organisms are closely related?
A) Both are cocci.
B) Both ferment lactose.
C) Their DNA can hybridize.
D) Both normally live in clams.
E) Both are motile.

Answer: E

Data collected to date indicate that
A) Humans and marine mammals cannot be infected by the same pathogens.
B) Marine mammals do not get infectious diseases.
C) New species of bacteria may be discovered in wild animals.
D) Marine mammals don't have an immune system.
E) None of the above.

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