Test 3

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80 terms

Love as the basis for marriage is

An 18th-century invention of Western Culture.

Which of the following statements about online (internet) versus face-to-face relationships is most accurate?

Research suggests that virtual relationships are just as intimate as face-to-face ones.

Which of the following statements about the role of physical attractiveness in relationships is not accurate?

Both genders rate physical attractiveness of a potential mate higher than personal qualities such as kindness and warmth.

According to matching hypothesis

people of similar levels of physical attractiveness gravitate toward each other

If you want to have a friend, be a friend. This statement is most consistent with which of the following concepts?

reciprocity.

The research on similarity seems to show that married and dating couples

tend to be similar on most important attributes

Both male and female college students ranked which of the following characteristics as the most important in a sexual partner

attractive appearance.

Encouraging your partner to disclose his or her thoughts and feelings to you illustrates which of the following relationship maintenance strategies?

Openness.

Interdependence theory proposes that

interpersonal relationships are governed by rewards and costs.

According to interdependence theory, what constitutes an acceptable balance of rewards and costs in a relationship is

determined by Skinner's principle of reinforcement.

Studies indicate that the most important element of friendship is

emotional support.

Women's friendships tend to focus on

talking and emotional intimacy.

Most homosexual women prefer to call themselves

lesbians.

Research evidence suggests that

men are more romantic than women.

Which of the following is not one of the components in Robert Sternberg's triangular theory of love

Sexuality.

According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love, the combination of intimacy and passion produces

romantic love.

Cindy Hazan and Philop Shaver suggested that patterns of adult romantic love are related to

attachment relationships in infancy.

The tendency to attribute one's own behavior to situational factors and other's behavior to personal factors is called

the actor-observer effect.

Lonely people

have fewer interpersonal relationships than desired.

Which of the following is a personal consequence associated with chronic loneliness?

hostility, depression, alcoholism (all of the above).

Marriage, as a legally and socially sanctioned union is

under assault, but appears to be weathering the storm.

Role expectations for husbands and wives are becoming

more varied and flexible.

Which of the following is the main reason most people get married?

The desire to participate in a socially sanctioned, mutually rewarding, intimate relationship.

Endogamy refers to the tendency of people to marry someone who

comes from one's own social group.

The tendency to marry someone who has personality characteristics similar to to one's own is called

Homogamy.

In assessing a potential mate, women place a higher value than men on all but which of the following?

Youthfulness.

On reaching Murstein's second stage of mate selection (the "value" stage) couples begin to

explore each other's attitudes about such things as religion, politics, and gender role.

Couples who have high levels of intimacy, closeness, and commitment prior to the birth of the first child

maintain a high level of satisfaction after the birth of a child.

Parents overwhelmingly rate_________________ as the most difficult stage of parenting.

adolescence.

Conflict between adolescent children and their parents is most likely to involve which of the following issues?

the kinds of clothes the adolescent wears.

The vast majority of empirical studies on maternal employment have found

little evidence that a mother's working is harmful to her children.

According to your textbook, the best way for married couples to avoid troublesome battles over money is probably to

engage in joint decision making on finances.

After a divorce, children are likely to exhibit all but which of the following

improved academic performance.

Which of the following statements about remarriage is not true?

Divorce rates are lower for second than for first marriages.

In comparison to married people, single people

exhibit poorer physical and mental health.

Which of the following statements about cohabitation is accurate

The majority of cohabitants plan to marry eventually.

The majority of homosexual men and women prefer

a stable, long-term relationship.

Men who batter women tend to be characterized by all but which of the following?

high in empathy.

Which of the following reasons explains why some women in abusive relationships feel that leaving is not a realistic option

they fear economic hardship, they simply have no place to go, they feel guilty and ashamed about their failing relationship (all of the above).

Which of the following is considered a "date rape drug."

rohypnol.

Widely shared beliefs about males and females abilities, personality, and social behavior are called

gender stereotypes.

Androcentrism refers to

the belief that the male is the norm.

Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in verbal abilities is accurate?

Girls usually start speaking earlier than boys.

Research findings indicate that with respect to aggressive behavior

males engage in more physical aggression.

Regarding gender differences in communication, it has been found that

women tend to speak more tentatively.

The overall incidence of mental disorders indicates that

It is roughly the same for both genders.

Which of the following disorders is more common in men than in women?

Alcoholism.

Evolutionary psychologists explain social behaviors such as aggression and mating patterns in term of different_____________pressures operating on the genders over the course of human history.

Natural selection.

Hormones play a role in gender differentiation during

prenatal development.

Gender-role socialization occurs through

Self-socialization, observational learning, reinforcement and punishment (all of the above play a part in the acquisition of gender roles).

Between the ages of 4 and 6, children tend to separate into

same-gender groups.

In the modern male role, masculinity is validated by all but which of the following?

Individual physical strength.

Men learn to confuse feelings of intimacy and

sex

The intense fear and intolerance of homosexuality is

termed homophobia.

Heterosexual success refers to

women learning how to attract and interest males as prospective mates.

Based on the results of a survey of employees from five ethnically diverse organizations, which of the following groups is most likely to experience harassment

minority women.

An androgynous person is one who

scores above average on measures of both masculinity and femininity.

Sandra Bem suggests that androgynous people are

psychologically healthier than those who are gender-typed.

When Deborah Tannen says that males and females are socialized in different "cultures," she means that

males learn status and independence, while females have friends of both genders.

Tannen suggests that many frustrations could be avoided if

men and women were more aware of gender-based differences in communication styles.

Psychologists who study human behavior in the workplace are called___________psychologists.

industrial/organizational

In researching the characteristics of a potential job, you should find out what you can derive in personal satisfaction from the job. That is, you should be concerned with

intrinsic job satisfaction.

Occupational interest inventories

are focused more on job satisfaction than job success.

Which of the following statements regarding gender bias on occupational interest inventories is

Gender bias has been reduced, but it has not been eliminated.

When making career choices, an important point to keep in mind is

career choice is a developmental process.

According to John Holland's trait measurement and matching model of career development, which of the following personal orientations would be most compatible with a job as a nurse?

social.

According to Donald Super, the critical factor the governs career development is one's

self-concept.

According to Super's developmental model of career choice which of the following stages involves making a commitment to a specific job, and demonstrating the ability to function effectively in this job?

establishment stage.

The career development of males and females is

different, in part, because women still subordinate their career goals to those of their husbands.

The jobs of the next decade are most likely to be in which of the following areas?

Service.

Which of the following statements regarding diversity in the workplace is not accurate?

Technically, job discrimination on the basis of race and gender is not illegal.

According to Robert Karasek, occupational stress is most likely to occur under which of the following conditions?

high psychological demands and low decision control.

Interventions at the________________are the most widely used strategy for managing work-related stress.

individual level.

All but which of the following is a characteristic of the typical female victim of sexual harassment in the workplace?

married

Which of the following is not one of the results of unemployment discussed in your textbook?

anxiety, depression, loss of self-esteem ( all of the above are possible results).

Employees who lose their jobs because of downsizing-instead of poor job performance-are likely to believe they have been treated arbitrarily and unfairly-a situation found to be associated with an increase in

aggression.

Research indicates that workaholism may be either constructive or problematic, depending on the

individuals enjoyment of the job.

Which of the following statements about vacation and leisure activities is not accurate?

Workers in most European Union Countries have less vacation time than American workers.

The main purpose of a resume is to

get you an interview.

Which of the following is not good advice for creating the right impression during a job interview?

Elevate your perceived worth by criticizing your previous employer.

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