Chapter 34 Cardiac Surgery

28 terms by raymondjelus Plus

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Aneurysm

A weakness in the arterial wall resulting in ballooning of the artery and possible rupture.

Apex

The lower left tip of the left ventricle of the heart; also, the rounded upper portion of each lung.

Arrhythmia

An abnormal heartbeat -- dysrhythmia

Arteriosclerosis

Disease of the arteries characterized by loss of elasticity and hardening of the arterial walls.

Atherosclerosis

A disease characterized by the buildup of cholesterol deposits in the arterial lining.

Bradycardia

A slow heart rate --- usually a heart rate under 60 beats per minute in an adult.

Cardiac cycle

The pumping action of the heart from one beat to tghe next.

Cardioplegia

Intentional stopping of the heart during cardiac surgery. This is achieved with a cardioplegic solution, which often contains a mixture of potassium chloride, lidocaine, dextrose, insulin, albumin, tromethamine, and Plasmanate.

Coarctation

A congenital narrowing or stricture in the descending thoracic aorta.

Congenital

A condition present at birth.

Cross clamp

To place a clamp across a structure to occlude it.

Diastole

That phase of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles contract.

Endovascular repair

Endoscopic surgery of the vascular system.

Fibrillation

Uncoordinated muscular activity in the heart muscle, which results in a "quivering" rather than a pumping action.

Fusiform aneurysm

A type of aneurysm that involves the entire circumference of a blood vessel.

Heart lung machine

Medical device used during cardiac bypass. Systemic blood is shunted out of the body via cannulas, which are implanted in the heart. The device collects the blood, removes excess carbon dioxide, oxygenates it, and returns it to the body through separate cannulas.

Infarction

Necrosis and death of tissue related to obstruction of blood flow.

Ischemia

Reduced blood supply to tissue. Ischemia may be a result of obstruction within the blood vessels or external pressure, which acts as a tourniquet.

Off pump procedure

A procedure performed without a cardiopulmonary bypass --- "the pump".

Pacemaker

A device that stimulates the heart muscle to contract.

Preclotting

The process of soaking a graft or patch of synthetic graft material in the patient's blood or plasma before insertion. Most grafts no longer need preclotting.

Saccular aneurysm

A type of aneurysm in which a saclike formation with a narrow neck projects from the side of the artery.

Shunt

To bypass a structure or carry fluid from one anatomical location to another.

Stenosis

The narrowing of a hollow structure such as a blood vessel or duct.

Sternotomy

An incision made into the sternum

Systole

A phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract.

Tachycardia

A fast heart rate --- usually over 120 beats per minute i the adult..

Thoracotomy

An incision made into the thoracic cavity.

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