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AztecEmpire

The Aztec Empire was a hierarchal Empire in Central America that was formed by the alignment of three major cities in the valley of Mexico. Due to their brutal treatment of those they conquered including human sacrifice they had many enemies which provided the Spanish with many allies when fighting did break out.

MayanEmpire

The Mayan Empire was a civilization that existed before the Aztec Empire and south of it. They also participate in Human sacrifice like the Aztec Empire. Had complex calendars which was unique for this time period.

Iroquois

Native Americans living in the now New York area. Had a varying relationship with the British colonists. At first allying with some but after a long time of wars against other Native American tribes in defense of the colonists they decided to take a more neutral stance and play the different European countries off of each other.

PuebloSocieties

a group of Native Americans that were driven from their native are (most likely by draught) and formed small communities, which is where the name Pueblo comes from.

Yeomen

Freed slaves who owned farms.

Reconquista

When the Spanish reconquered the areas of Spain controlled by the Moors, Muslims from Africa that controlled much of Spain.

HermanCortes

Was the first European explorer to find a major Native American civilization. He landed in the capital of the Aztec Empire.

encomienda

European by birth

ColumbianExchange

Newly formed trade between South America and Europe introducing life stock and plants from one side of the Atlantic to the other. This also included the introduction of diseases the Europeans were resistant to, to the Native Americans.

mestizos

People of mixed Spanish and European birth

RichardKayluyt

An English writer who wrote about the colonization of America. His writing promoted the colonization movement even though he himself remained in Great Britain,

Indenturedservitude

Also known as engagés, people owed a prearranged number of service years. Many were sent over to America to work, but most returned home after their term had ended.

PuebloRevolt

A man named Popé lead a revolt with several different groups of pueblo indians. Some 2,000 warriors destroyed isolated farms and missions, killing 400 colonists, including 21 Franciscan missionaries. They then surrounded Santa Fe. The spanish resisted for awhile then finally surrendered, coming back later to take it back.

Louisiana

Native Americans constructed a large community centered on a series of giant semicircular mounds on a bluff overlook- ing the Mississippi River in present-day Louisiana. Known today as Poverty Point, it was a commercial and governmental center whose residents established trade routes throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys.

HenryHudson

Henry Hudson, an Englishman employed by the Dutch East India Company, sailed into New York Harbor searching for a Northwest Passage to Asia. Hudson and his crew became the first Europeans to sail up the river that now bears his name. It's located in New York City.

WalterRaleigh

Founder of Roanoke.

VirginiaCompany

Funded the Virginia colony. Government didn't have money to pay for it itself. Named after Queen Elizabeth the 1st, the virgin queen.

HouseofBurgesses

The legislative group for virginia, established in 1619

PowhatanConfederacy

The Powhatan Confederacy were the Indians among whom the English made their first permanent settlement in North America. Around Jamestown.

Uprisingof1622

Powhatan rose against the English. The Indian Massacre of 1622 took place in the English Colony of Virginia on Friday, 22 March 1622. Chief Opechancanough led a coordinated series of surprise attacks of the Powhatan Confederacy that killed 347 people, a quarter of the English population of Jamestown.

CeciliusCalvert

Founded Maryland as a refuge for Catholics.

headrightsystem

Some colonies would reward people with land for bringing over more colonists.

WilliamBerkeley

Was Governor of Virginia during Bacon's rebellion.

NathanielBacon

Citizen and legislature or the Virginia colony. Called for Berkeley to take even more land from the Native Americans in order to allow more poor people to own farms.

MayflowerCompact

An agreement to form a government by the people on the Mayflower.

WilliamBradford

Governor of Plymouth

JohnWinthrop

Well known Puritan, founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Viewed the colony as a "city on a hill" and example for the rest of the world to follow.

Puritanism

A group of Protestants that split off the church of England. Lead by John Winthrop.

BibleCommonwealth

Colonies that had laws based off of the Bible as to be fore the common good.

JohnCalvin

A swiss theologian. Said that going to heaven or hell was predetermined by god and nothing could change that. Ideas followed by puritans.

RogerWilliams

Between January and March 1683. Co-founder of Rhode Island. Was in Massachusetts. Wanted to separate state and church.

AnneHutchinson

Was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England.

Mystic(1637)

A massacre that happened in 1637 during the Pequot War when colonists soldiers set fire to a fortified Native American settlement shooting anyone who tried to escape the flames.

ThomasHooker

Puritan leader who created the colony of Connecticut after a dispute with the Puritans in Massachusetts.

HarvardCollege

First institution of higher learning in America and now is one of the best in the world.

PequotWar

Conflict between the colonist and the Pequot tribe. During this war both sides would commit atrocities killing unarmed civilians while others would be hunting.

Metacom

Also known as King Philip (a name given to him by the colonists). Leader of the Native Americans in King Philip's War. Eventually tracked down and killed.

WilliamPenn

Founder of Pennsylvania. A quaker who wanted to promote a society of religious tolerance, based on many of the quaker beliefs: no alcohol, no adultery, etc.

Quakerism

Sub-sect of Christianity, believed that anyone could choose for themselves as apposed to being destined to either heaven or hell.

CharlesII

King of England, granted many charters to the New World. During his reign parliament started establishing it's rights.

NavigationActs

Colonists had to first sell everything to Great Britain then they could sell it elsewhere.

DominionofNewEngland

Combination of many of the colonies of New England, ordered by King james II in order to regain some control over the colonies.

HalfwayCovenant

Gave grandchildren of colonists the right to regain full membership to the church because attendance was greatly decreasing.

JohnLocke

Philosopher, founder of liberalism.

GloriousRevolution

Established supremacy of parliament over the crown.

SalemWitchTrials

A series of trials in Salem which were used as a may of taking land from women.

JocabLesler

Headed a rebellion that took control of New York.

JohnPeterZenger

Journalist, spoke out against the government constantly, and was tried in court but won thus helping establish freedom of press.

Barbados

Island off the coast of South Carolina, which was high quality land but not very much of it which required the expansion of territory.

AdamSmith

Father of modern economics, scottish philosopher.

RoyalAfricaCompany

Had a monopoly on the slave trade.

MiddlePassage

The journey for slaves over the atlantic ocean to their slavery in the Americas. Gruesome behavior and tactics were used by most slavers.

OlaudahEquiano

One of the few slaves to urn freedom and actually lead a successful life.

Gullah

A mix of African languages that was spoken at rice plantations.

StonoRebellion

A rebellion of slaves who were trying to escape to Spanish controlled Florida, who were offering freedom to slaves who betrayed their British masters.

Gentry

Colonial aristocrats.

SalutaryNeglect

Policy of Great Britain which allowed the colonies to pretty much govern themselves.

WarofJenkin'sEar

War between Spain in Britain

TheEnlightenment

Started in France and Britain, which sparked the idea that individuals can think and discover for themselves.

Pietism

A form of Lutheranism that was partially based on ideas from the Enlightenment.

BenjaminFranklin

The ideal representative of American Enlightenment. Was expert in an ensemble of fields.

Deism

The idea that reason and observation is all that one needs to prove the existence of god. Religious aspect of the Enlightenment movement.

Revival

a movement in America of passionate preaching that swept across America.

JonathanEdwards

Preacher who promoted the fear of God in his teachings.

JohnWesley

One of the founders of the methodist movement.

George Whitefield

Part of the Revival movement, preached that no one was either destined for heaven or hell.

Old Lightsvs.New Lights

Battle between newer and older religious movements in the colonies.

Ohiocompany

The land of the Ohio river valley was given to this company, however the land was disputed by the British, French, and Native Americans. This event started the seven years war.

AlbanyCongress

A meeting of the British colonies to discuss their relations with the native americans, and other aspects of political life.

WilliamPitt

Prime Minister of Britain during the Seven Years War. Extremely motivated to defeating France in any way he could.

Pontiac'sRebellion

Lead by Pontiac, leader of Native Americans in Ottawa. Organized a large number of Native American tribes to attack the British Colonies.

Proclamationof1763

Established that no more colonists could go past the Appalachian mountains.

PaxtonBoys

Group of British colonist who destroyed Native American settlements.

Regulator Movement

Uprising against North and South Carolina officials who were mostly corrupt.

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