Trauma Practice Test

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Which one of the following instructions or questions to a patient who has suffered a possible concussion indicates that the EMT is properly assessing for sensory function in the hands?

"Squeeze my fingers with both hands."

Do you feel me touching your right hand?"

Can you wiggle your fingers?"

Can you tell me what finger I am touching?"

Can you tell me what finger I am touching?"

A young male patient was running through a park and struck his head on a low lying branch of a tree. Emergency Medical Responders have already immobilized the patient to a long board and are providing high-flow oxygen through a nonrebreather face mask. During transport, which one of the following assessment findings obtained during your reassessment would best indicate that the patient has suffered a concussion?

Persistent confusion

Unequal grip strength

Elevated blood pressure

Improving memory

Improving memory

A 41-year-old male patient has been struck in the head with a metal pipe. As you approach the patient, you note that he appears combative and has blood to the left side of his face and head and on his shirt. His breathing appears to be labored, and he is incontinent of urine. Which one of the following should you perform immediately?

Check his pupils for equality and reactivity.

Expose the chest to look for possible bleeding.

Take manual in-line spinal stabilization.

Apply oxygen at 15 lpm via nonrebreather mask.

Take manual in-line spinal stabilization.

A car strikes a tree causing the passenger to strike his forehead against the dashboard. After the impact, the brain bounces back and forth within the skull. Based on the anatomy and physiology of the skull, which one of the following is true?

The frontal bone is the thinnest portion of the skull and most easily fractured.

The ridges of the basilar skull can injure the brain as it moves back and forth.

The brain will not be injured since the flexibility of the skull will absorb the force of the impact.

The brain will not be injured unless an object on the dashboard penetrates the skull.

The ridges of the basilar skull can injure the brain as it moves back and forth.

A patient fell and has a headache. Which one of the following patient statements should be of most concern to the EMT?

"I had my thyroid gland removed."

"I had my appendix removed two weeks ago."

"I forgot to take my multi-vitamins today."

"I take the blood thinner Coumadin."

"I take the blood thinner Coumadin."

A 68-year-old female patient is complaining of a headache and generalized weakness. Her husband informs you that she was with a friend yesterday and was involved in a motor-vehicle collision. She did strike her face on the dashboard, but refused treatment on scene. Her past medical history includes a stroke with right arm weakness and high blood pressure for which she takes medications. When assessing this patient, which one of the following findings should concern the EMT most?

Complaint of pain when she moves her jaw

Bruising behind her left ear

Contusion to her left cheek area

Weakness to the right-hand grip

Bruising behind her left ear

When transporting an unresponsive patient with a traumatic brain injury, which one of the following assessment findings would suggest that the patient is suffering from a herniation of the brain?

The patient starts to vomit.

Both pupils are 4 mm and react to light.

There is flexion of the arms when a shoulder is pinched

The patient remains unresponsive.

There is flexion of the arms when a shoulder is pinched

Which one of the following findings is most consistent with a basilar skull fracture?

Altered mental status

Bruising behind the ear, which develops several hours after the injury

A hematoma over the occipital area of the head

Bilateral dilated pupils that do not respond to light

Bruising behind the ear, which develops several hours after the injury

Your assessment of a patient involved in a motor-vehicle collision reveals a deformity to the left side of the head underneath the hair. On further inspection you note that the skin overlying the deformity is still intact. Based on these assessment findings, which one of the following should be the EMT's greatest concern?

Fracture of the skull

Possible brain injury

Potential for infection of the brain

Soft tissue trauma to the scalp

Possible brain injury

An unhelmeted patient who was thrown from a motorcycle has a large scalp avulsion with obvious depression to the top of his head. These findings suggest which one of the following injuries?

Basilar skull fracture

Intracranial hematoma

Open head injury

Linear skull fracture

Open head injury

Your patient is a young female, who was thrown from a horse and is now confused. Assessment findings include an open airway, adequate breathing, and a strong radial pulse. Her vital signs are normal. Which one of the following questions would be the most important to ask her mother, who was riding with her?

"Is she allergic to anything?"

"Has she ever needed to be hospitalized for injuries before?"

"Are all of her immunizations up to date?"

"Did she lose consciousness?"

"Did she lose consciousness?"

An unrestrained middle-aged female was thrown from her car as it rolled in the median of an interstate. She is supine, appears unresponsive, has blood on her face, and has snoring respirations. Your first action on reaching her side should be to:

find the wound that is bleeding and apply direct pressure.

insert an oropharyngeal airway.

determine the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score.

perform the jaw-thrust maneuver.

perform the jaw-thrust maneuver.

You are assessing the pupils of a patient who hit his head after falling from the top of a tractor trailer. Which one of the following findings would suggest a closed head injury?

The right pupil constricts when light is shined into the left pupil.

The left pupil constricts to light but the right pupil does not.

The left pupil dilates in reaction to light while the right does not.

Both the left and right pupils are constricted and do not react to light.

The left pupil constricts to light but the right pupil does not.

You are assessing a patient who had a previous head injury in which a portion of the cerebellum was destroyed. Which one of the following signs and symptoms would the EMT expect to find in relation to this injury

inability to remember information such as a past medical history

Poor coordination when signing his name to the prehospital care report

Inability to move or feel sensations in one side of his body

Problems with the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure

Poor coordination when signing his name to the prehospital care report

Your patient is a young adult male with a gunshot wound to the left side of his head. He is unresponsive with snoring respirations. He is breathing six times per minute with a pulse rate of 52 and a blood pressure of 192/104 mmHg. His radial pulse is strong and his skin is cool, but not diaphoretic. In addition to in-line manual stabilization of the cervical spine, the first intervention for this patient should be which one of the following?

Performing a jaw-thrust maneuver

Beginning positive pressure ventilations with a bag-valve mask

High-flow oxygen via nonrebreather mask

Inserting an oropharyngeal airway

Performing a jaw-thrust maneuver

A 14-year-old male fell 10 feet from a retaining wall and hit his head on a metal post. He is responsive to verbal stimuli with incomprehensible speech. The secondary assessment indicates blood and fluid coming from inside the patient's left ear. You should do which one of the following?

Tilt the backboard to the left to allow the ear to drain freely.

Suction the blood from the ear so you can determine the cause of bleeding.

Place a folded piece of gauze in the ear canal to stop the drainage.

Place a piece of sterile gauze over the ear.

Place a piece of sterile gauze over the ear.

A 52-year-old male is unresponsive and has bruises and lacerations to the head, chest, and abdomen. Bystanders state that the patient was intoxicated and got into a fight with several patrons of a bar. They state that he was beaten with their fists, and not other objects or weapons. The patient has snoring respirations, shallow breathing, and a strong radial pulse. His skin is warm and dry. After taking manual in-line spinal stabilization, which one of the following should be your next action?

Start positive pressure ventilation.

Apply a cervical collar.

Insert a nasal or oral airway.

Perform the jaw-thrust maneuver.

Perform the jaw-thrust maneuver.

You have been called to the local community hospital for a 48-year-old male involved in a motor-vehicle collision one hour ago. He has been diagnosed with a cerebral contusion and must be transported to a trauma center for specialty care. As a knowledgeable EMT, you recognize that a cerebral contusion is:

bruising and swelling of the brain tissue.

an open skull fracture with increased pressure in the skull.

active bleeding between the brain and the skull.

the formation of a pocket of blood within the brain tissue.

bruising and swelling of the brain tissue.

Which one of the following assessment findings is most indicative of increasing pressure within the skull from a closed-head injury?

Heart rate of 132 beats per minute

Respirations of 24 per minute

Right pupillary constriction

Blood pressure of 192/106 mmHg

Blood pressure of 192/106 mmHg

Which one of the following patients has an isolated head injury that should be considered the most serious?

62-year-old female who fell and hit her head and is becoming very confused and combative

31-year-old male who is nonverbal and extends his arms and legs when you pinch the muscles on his shoulder

53-year-old female who fell and has a large laceration that is bleeding heavily to the back of her head

21-year-old male wearing a deformed motorcycle helmet who does not respond to verbal or painful stimuli

21-year-old male wearing a deformed motorcycle helmet who does not respond to verbal or painful stimuli

Which one of the following statements best describes the technique to be used when hyperventilating a head-injured patient with signs that the brain is herniating?

Provide one ventilation every five seconds.

Ventilate 30 times per minute.

Ventilate 16 times per minute.

Provide one ventilation every three seconds.

Provide one ventilation every three seconds.

A 61-year-old male has fallen off a roof. Your primary assessment findings include unresponsiveness, shallow breathing, and a weak and slow radial pulse. His skin is cool and dry. Emergency Medical Responders are maintaining manual in-line spinal stabilization. Which one of the following should you do immediately?

Place the patient in the shock position.

Start positive pressure ventilation.

Apply a cervical collar.

Transfer to the stretcher for rapid transport.

Start positive pressure ventilation.

You have been called to a residence of a diabetic patient who is confused. A family member states she could not reach the patient by telephone, so she came over and found the patient awake but confused. The patient can remember his name and address, but cannot remember the day or year. He refuses to go to the hospital, but consents to an assessment. Of the following physical exam findings, which one is most concerning?

SpO2 at 96%

Heart rate of 62 beats per minute

Bruise to the left temple

Blood glucose level of 77 mg/dl

Bruise to the left temple

An 18-year-old male patient was struck in the head by a palette of concrete blocks being moved by a crane at a construction site. He has a large laceration to the left side of his head and noted instability to the skull beneath the wound, with moderate bleeding occurring. His airway is open, his breathing is adequate, and his pulse is strong and regular. Proper care for this patient should include:

rapid transport in an upright position.

dressing over top of the laceration.

positive pressure ventilation.

insertion of a nasal airway.

dressing over top of the laceration.

You are suspicious that an unhelmeted male patient who was ejected from a motorcycle may have a basilar skull fracture. As you conduct your secondary assessment, which one of the following findings reinforces this suspicion?

Paralysis of the left arm and leg

Dilation and sluggish response to light of the right pupil

Clear fluid coming from the right ear and left nostril

Blood coming from both ear

Clear fluid coming from the right ear and left nostril

What piece of information would you provide to a group of older drivers with musculoskeletal problems to decrease their chance of suffering a "whiplash" type injury?

Position the car seats in a full upright position.

Ensure that the head rest is properly positioned.

Consider purchasing a car with side door airbags.

Properly wear seatbelts with a headrest in the down position.

Ensure that the head rest is properly positioned.

A young female wears her lap belt low, over her upper thighs, because the belt is uncomfortable when worn properly. If involved in a head-on "up and over" type collision, to what injury is she most prone, given the position of her lap belt?

Internal abdominal injury


Dislocated hips

Bilateral arm fractures

Tibia-fibula fractures

Dislocated hips

A 23-year-old roofer has fallen 20 feet from the roof of a house into shrubs below. Aside from superficial abrasions and complaint of soreness, you detect no obvious injuries. Consequently, the patient states that as long as his legs are not broken, he does not see the need to go to the hospital. As a knowledgeable EMT, your best response would be:

"Although you feel okay now, you will most likely be sore later on. Why don't we go to the hospital and ask about some medications for pain?"

"Since you did not lose consciousness, I feel better about having you refuse. Just keep an eye on your feet and watch for swelling."

"Since this is a work-related injury, you should really be evaluated in the hospital. Workman's comp may not cover you if you do not."

"From a fall of this height, you may have hurt some internal organs. You really need to be examined."

"From a fall of this height, you may have hurt some internal organs. You really need to be examined."

A patient, who was constructing a bomb in his basement, has sustained a secondary phase blast injury. Which of the following presentations would the EMT most likely observe?

Complaint of nausea after inhaling fumes

Screwdriver impaled in the arm

Burns to the head, neck, and chest

Headache and shortness of breath

Screwdriver impaled in the arm

You are assessing a patient involved in a motorcycle accident. He states that he saw an oncoming car and "laid the bike down" to avoid an outright collision. He was wearing a helmet. Which of the following injuries would make sense given the action of the motorcyclist?

Bilateral broken forearms


Burn to the inside of the leg

"Road rash" to the entire body

Angulation to both femurs

Burn to the inside of the leg

If a car strikes a utility pole at 35 mph, which of the following is true?

The internal organs struck the inside of the body at 35 mph.

The energy transferred to the body is increased by a factor of 2.

The patient struck the steering wheel at a combined speed of 70 mph.

The utility pole absorbed half of the kinetic energy making the body collision 17.5 mph.

The internal organs struck the inside of the body at 35 mph.

You are assessing a male patient who was stabbed three times in the chest and abdomen. As you begin your primary assessment, you note him to have a decreased level of consciousness and gurgling respirations. Your next action would be to:

check his pulse.

apply a cervical collar.

obtain a SpO2 reading.

suction the airway.

suction the airway.

Assessment of a patient involved in a motor vehicle accident reveals him to have crepitus to the left humerus, instability to the left lateral chest wall and flank, and pain on palpation to left hip region. He also complains of pain to the right side of the neck. Based on this injury pattern, the EMT would recognize the patient was:

an unrestrained occupant in a car struck from the side.

the passenger in a car hit from behind.

the driver of a car hit on the driver's side.

an unrestrained driver involved in a head-on collision.

the driver of a car hit on the driver's side.

A patient is involved in an altercation and was struck in the ribs with a baseball bat. Your assessment reveals intact skin with significant bruising to the right lateral chest. When palpating this area, you note instability and crepitus to the rib cage. The patient is also complaining of difficulty breathing. The EMT would recognize:

pulmonary injury caused by penetrating trauma.

thoracic injury secondary to penetrating trauma.

chest injury caused by blunt trauma.

chest wall injury cause by acceleration forces.

chest injury caused by blunt trauma.

You are hosting a discussion on injury prevention when a participant asks you if you believe that helmets for motorcyclists will truly make a difference. You would respond by saying:

"Motorcycle helmets decrease the risk of death when involved in a collision."

"Wearing a helmet decreases the chance of being ejected from a motorcycle."

"Helmets have been shown to prevent motorcycle accidents."

"A motorcycle helmet decreases the chance of permanent spinal injury."

"Motorcycle helmets decrease the risk of death when involved in a collision."

The EMT understands the importance of evaluating the mechanism of injury when he states:

"Evaluating the mechanism of injury is important since it determines whether emergency transport to the hospital is needed."

The mechanism of injury is a useful tool in determining if the patient's outcome will be good or bad."

"The mechanism of injury is useful in determining the exact injuries the patient has sustained."

The mechanism of injury can be used to guide your assessment and treatment of the patient."

The mechanism of injury can be used to guide your assessment and treatment of the patient."

A patient has been stabbed with a knife at the fifth intercostal space on the right side of the chest. Assessment reveals him to be short of breath and coughing. Which of the following questions is it most important for the EMT to ask regarding the weapon?

"Did the person twist the knife?"

"Was the knife clean or dirty?"

Did the knife penetrate your chest easily?"

"How long was the knife?"

"How long was the knife?"

When teaching Emergency Medical Responders about airbags, which of the following points would you emphasize?

The benefit of airbags is decreased in multiple collisions.

Airbags prevent broken glass from striking the occupant.

Properly placed airbags eliminate the need for seatbelts.

Airbags are effective in decreasing injury in a rollover-type collision.

The benefit of airbags is decreased in multiple collisions.

An unrestrained driver of a car that has struck a tree at 45 mph has suffered a contusion (bruise) to his heart. The EMT would recognize that this injury occurred during which impact of the collision?

Vehicle collision

Organ collision

Body collision

Physiologic collision

Organ collision

Which of the following is a high-velocity wounds that carries the greatest risk for death when considering the concept of cavitation?

Stab wound to the liver

Shotgun wound to the lung

Gunshot wound to the stomach

Gunshot wound to the spleen

Gunshot wound to the spleen

You are responding to a call for a 4-year-old child hit by a car. When assessing this child, which of the following injury patterns would you recognize as typical based on the child's age and mechanism of injury?

Bilateral ankle deformity, contusions to the back

Left arm and leg deformity, head injury

Head injury with deformity to both upper arms

Deformed femurs, bruises to the chest and abdomen

Deformed femurs, bruises to the chest and abdomen

Which of the following describes the "platinum 10 minutes" as it applied to care of the trauma patient?

The amount of time EMS should spend on scene with any patient suffering a traumatic injury(s)

The goal for total amount of time from the actual injury to arrival of EMS at the scene

The target scene time for EMS as it applies to the seriously injured trauma patient

The time it should take the transporting ambulance to get the trauma patient to the closest medical facility

The target scene time for EMS as it applies to the seriously injured trauma patient

A patient with severe head and neck pain states that he was properly wearing his seatbelt when another car struck him from behind. As a knowledgeable EMT, you would realize that the complaint of.

head pain suggests that he was not wearing the seatbelt properly.

head and neck pain indicates that he was not wearing his seatbelt.

head and neck pain indicates that the lap belt was worn without the shoulder harness.

head and neck pain could occur when the seatbelt is properly worn.

head and neck pain could occur when the seatbelt is properly worn.

A male patient has sustained gunshot wounds to the neck and abdomen. He is unresponsive and has gurgling respirations. Your immediate action would be to:

suction the airway.

insert a nasal airway.

obtain vital signs.

immobilize the spine.

suction the airway.

Two cars have collided head on. One car was traveling 55 mph and the other 35 mph. The total speed of impact would be:

90 mph.

20 mph.

55 mph.

35 mph.

90 mph

Which of the following best describes the goal of a trauma system?

Providing the highest level of care possible within a 10-minute transport time for all patients

Getting the right patient to the right facility in the right amount of time

Providing all trauma patients with a complete battery of diagnostic tests and access to specialists

Transporting as many patients as possible by air medical transportation

Getting the right patient to the right facility in the right amount of time

Which of the following statements concerning trauma is true?

A "spider web" or "star" pattern of cracks on the windshield means the patient impacted the windshield with his head.

Multi-system trauma has a higher mortality rate than single-system injuries.

Falls are the leading cause of trauma deaths.

Mechanism of injury is the best predictor of patient outcome.

Multi-system trauma has a higher mortality rate than single-system injuries.

A patient has been critically hurt in a nighttime motor vehicle collision. She was wearing a seatbelt and hit a tree at 70 mph. The car she was driving weighed two tons and was equipped with airbags that did deploy. Which of the following had the greatest impact on her being injured?

Weight of the vehicle

Nighttime conditions

Speed of the vehicle at impact

Deployment of airbags

Speed of the vehicle at impact

You are first on the scene of a two-car motor vehicle collision. In one car there are two patients entrapped in the vehicle, while in the other, there is a male driver complaining of chest pain. At this time, your primary concern is:

calling for additional help.

determining severity of injuries.

assuring personal safety.

triaging the patients.

assuring personal safety.

A bullet fired from a gun at close range passes through the patient's liver. However, on autopsy, the coroner discovers that the man's pancreas, stomach, and gall bladder were also injured, even though not in direct contact with the bullet. As a knowledgeable EMT, you would recognize that which of the following is responsible for injury to these additional organs?

Drag force

Blunt injury

Profile impact

Cavitation

Cavitation

A 43-year-old male has called 911 with the complaint of difficulty breathing. On scene you note he is breathing at a rate of 18 breaths per minute. He also exhibits intercostal retractions and nasal flaring. The EMT should document this patient's breathing as:

tachypneic.

apneic.

dyspneic.

bradypneic.

dyspneic.

You are transporting an 18-year-old male who has been injured in a motor-vehicle collision. He has a decreased level of consciousness and has suffered injuries to his head, chest, and lower right leg. When you are conducting the reassessment of the patient's head and neck, which one of the following is appropriate?

Taking time to carefully re-palpate the face and scalp

Placing a sterile dressing in the right ear, which is oozing blood

Maintaining an airway with the head tilt-chin lift maneuver

Carefully removing the cervical collar to reassess the back of the neck

Taking time to carefully re-palpate the face and scalp

Which one of the following patients should the EMT identify as having the best breathing?

61-year-old female breathing at a rate of 8 breaths per minute

67-year-old female breathing 26 times per minute with good chest rise and fall

19-year-old male breathing 16 times per minute with wheezing in the lungs

34-year-old male who is alert and oriented with good chest rise and fall

34-year-old male who is alert and oriented with good chest rise and fall

As you approach a patient who was involved in a motor-vehicle crash, you note that he has dark, oozing blood coming from an open fracture to his left tibia. Which one of the following should you do immediately?

Apply direct pressure to the bleeding.

Provide oxygen at 15 liters per minute.

Take manual in-line spinal stabilization.

Assess and open the airway.

Take manual in-line spinal stabilization.

A patient has called 911 for abdominal pain and generalized weakness. On arrival you note that the patient's skin is a yellow-orange color. Which one of the following diseases revealed to you during the history would best correlate to this patient's skin?

Lung cancer

Diabetes

Liver disease

Stroke

Liver disease

The EMT's patient is a 45-year-old female with a severe headache. The EMT will perform which one of the following techniques when conducting her secondary assessment?

Assess the head, re-evaluate vital signs, and continue emergency care.

Reassess vital signs, open the airway, and obtain OPQRST information.

Continue emergency care, obtain the chief complaint, and gather SAMPLE history.

Assess from head to toe, obtain SAMPLE history, and check blood pressure.

Assess the head, re-evaluate vital signs, and continue emergency care.

A male patient was found in cardiac arrest by co-workers. On arrival you determined him to be in cardiac arrest and you started CPR. The AED was quickly placed and you shocked him once, restoring a heartbeat. During transport, the patient remains unresponsive, but is breathing and has a pulse. When conducting the reassessment phase on this patient, you should do which one of the following?

Obtain a blood pressure every 20 minutes.

Perform a trauma assessment.

Remove the oropharyngeal airway.

Recheck vital signs.

Recheck vital signs.

Your patient is an 82-year-old and diabetic. Which one of the following assessment parameters is the least reliable sign indicating circulatory status?

Skin temperature

Skin color

Pulse strength

Capillary refill

Capillary refill

A 36-year-old patient who has overdosed on an unknown drug presents with his eyes closed, even when his name is loudly called. Which one of the following should the EMT do first?

Perform a noxious stimuli.

Check the patient's vital signs.

Assess for a radial pulse.

Determine what drug was taken.

Perform a noxious stimuli.

When performing a secondary assessment on an alert and oriented female with a deformed left leg, the EMT should:

reassure the patient that she will be okay and the injury is nothing to worry about.

describe to the patient your findings and injuries as you encounter them.

explain to the patient what you are doing before and during assessment.

inform the patient that if you assess her, she must submit to all treatment by EMS.

explain to the patient what you are doing before and during assessment.

When teaching a group of Emergency Medical Responders about the mechanism of injury, which one of the following points should you stress?

The mechanism of injury can be used to dictate the order in which the primary assessment is conducted.

The more significant the mechanism of injury, the greater the chance the patient has been injured.

The mechanism of injury is the sole criteria by which an EMT decides whether or not immediate transport is required.

The mechanism of injury should not be overly considered since this causes many patients to be over-treated.

The more significant the mechanism of injury, the greater the chance the patient has been injured.

A 20-year-old female patient is found unresponsive. The first step of the secondary assessment for her is to:

conduct a rapid medical assessment.

gather a SAMPLE history from the family.

contact medical direction for advisement.

obtain vital signs.

conduct a rapid medical assessment.

The EMT recognizes that for a trauma patient who is alert and oriented, he should obtain the history during what component of patient assessment?

Primary assessment

Secondary assessment

Scene size-up

Reassessment

Secondary assessment

An EMT is assessing a nine-month-old infant who is "not acting right" per his mother. Assessment reveals him to be extremely irritable, crying weakly, and shows he does not want to be touched by the EMT. Which one of the following best describes this infant's mental status?

Lethargic

Crying

Verbal

Alert

Alert

When you assess the lower back of an elderly patient who fell, he grimaces and tells you that it hurts when you palpate the injury site. You should recognize which one of the following conditions?

Tenderness

Crepitus

Cullen's sign

Pain

Tenderness

At a nursing home, you find a patient extremely short of breath. To best determine if the patient is cyanotic, you should:

press and release the skin on the palm.

look at and feel the skin on the back of the hand.

examine the lining of the lips and mouth.

inspect the skin on the fingers and nail beds.

examine the lining of the lips and mouth.

Which one of the following capillary refill times is considered normal for a five-year-old child?

6 seconds

4 seconds

2 seconds

3 seconds

2 seconds

You have been called for a six-month-old male who has had a fever and just seized. Currently, he is not seizing and appears to be sleeping. When performing the primary assessment on this patient, which one of the following is appropriate?

Obtain a blood pressure when checking the patient's circulation status.

Check for the presence of a pulse in the brachial artery.

Move the baby to the ambulance before performing the primary assessment.

Evaluate the pulse before examining the breathing.

Check for the presence of a pulse in the brachial artery.

A 62-year-old female was struck by a car traveling approximately 45 miles per hour. After being struck, she was thrown 15 feet onto the sidewalk, impacting the pavement with her head and chest. The primary assessment has been completed and life threats addressed. The patient's husband is by her side. When performing the secondary exam on this patient, which one of the following should the EMT perform first?

Examine the head and chest for other life-threatening injuries.

Inquire from family if the patient has any past medical history.

Obtain a full set of vital signs including a pulse oximeter reading.

Assess the patient from head to toe for additional injuries.

Assess the patient from head to toe for additional injuries.

When assessing a stable patient with a medical complaint, which piece of information will be obtained first and will help to guide the type of exam after the primary assessment has been completed?

Chief complaint

Past medical history

Level of consciousness

Vital signs

Level of consciousness

An unresponsive 54-year-old male was found by family in his bed. They state that he has not been feeling well and complained of chest pain before going to bed approximately one hour ago. According to family, he has no prior medical history and does not take any medications. The primary assessment reveals no life-threatening conditions. When performing the secondary assessment on this patient, the EMT should:

start by examining the patient's head.

establish that the chest pain still exists.

contact the patient's family doctor.

focus the examination on the chest.

start by examining the patient's head.

You are transporting a 31-year-old male who was severely injured in a motor-vehicle collision. He is unresponsive and being ventilated by your partner with a bag-valve mask. How will you conduct the rapid secondary assessment on this patient?

Palpate the body but do not auscultate.

Focus on the chest and abdomen.

Perform a head-to-toe exam.

Focus on the head and torso.

Perform a head-to-toe exam.

You have completed the primary assessment on a patient who was thrown from a motorcycle, impacting his head and back on the nearby sidewalk. Finding no life threats during the primary assessment, what action should you take first when starting a secondary assessment?

Re-evaluate the mechanism of injury.

Reassess the patient's mental status.

Ensure that the airway is patent.

Apply oxygen at 15 liters per minute.

Re-evaluate the mechanism of injury.

You must check the circulation of an eight-year-old child who has a high fever and has been vomiting for the past two hours. The child is very frightened and crying. Given the situation, you should:

listen to the heart with a stethoscope.

obtain a carotid pulse.

palpate the radial artery.

feel for a brachial pulse.

palpate the radial artery.

A 69-year-old male called 911 because of the sudden onset of pain and numbness to his left leg. He states that he has a history of blood clots that form in the leg and the pain feels exactly as it did the last time that this occurred. He denies any trauma to the extremity. You perform the primary assessment and find him to be alert and oriented with no life-threatening conditions to the airway, breathing, or circulation. When performing the secondary assessment on this patient, which one of the following is most appropriate?

Immediate transport

Rapid head-to-toe exam

Physical exam of the leg

Placement of a nasal airway

Physical exam of the leg

A 40-year-old male patient has crashed his motorcycle. He complains of pain to his right leg. When palpating his leg, you are assessing for:

crepitation.

rigidity.

sensation.

bruising.

crepitation.

A 44-year-old male was cutting limbs from high in a tree when he fell. He is found to be unresponsive with snoring respirations. His breathing is inadequate at a rate of eight per minute and his carotid pulse is weak and difficult to locate. Following the primary assessment and initial management, which one of the following actions will the EMT complete while performing the secondary assessment?

Start positive pressure ventilation with a bag-valve mask.

Perform a trauma jaw-thrust to open the airway.

Place an oral airway and cervical collar on the patient.

Obtain vital signs and get a past medical history from the family.

Obtain vital signs and get a past medical history from the family.

The EMT realizes that following cardiac arrest, brain cells will begin to die after how many minutes?

15

1

10

5

5

As you approach a patient, you observe dark blood on his shirt. He appears confused, pale, and diaphoretic. Which one of the following should you do first?

Apply oxygen.

Treat for shock.

Cut his pants.

Assess his airway.

Assess his airway.

Your cardiac arrest patient has regained a pulse after two shocks. Which one of the following actions would be appropriate?

Removing the AED once it is determined that a pulse has returned

Canceling the ALS assistance and proceeding directly to the hospital

Transporting the patient supine and secured to a back board

Reanalyzing the patient's heart rhythm with the AED every five minutes

Transporting the patient supine and secured to a back board

You have arrived at a residence for a 66-year-old female who is in cardiac arrest. In the living room, you find Emergency Medical Responders performing CPR on the patient. They quickly report that they found the patient in cardiac arrest and have been doing CPR for five minutes. Which one of the following statements should you make at this time?

"Let's stop CPR so I can put the electrodes of the AED on her chest."

"Let's continue CPR for another two minutes, and then I will put the AED on."

"Let's continue CPR while I talk with the family to see if they want us to continue."

"Let's stop CPR so I can check the airway, breathing, and circulation."

"Let's stop CPR so I can check the airway, breathing, and circulation."

A patient goes into cardiac arrest at 11:40 a.m. Which one of the following treatment descriptions gives the patient the best chance for recovery?

CPR at 11:42 a.m. and advanced cardiac drugs at 11:48 a.m.

Defibrillation at 11:44 a.m. followed by CPR at 11:49 a.m.

Defibrillation at 11:46 a.m. followed by ACLS at 11:51 a.m.

CPR at 11:41 a.m. and defibrillation at 11:43 a.m.

CPR at 11:41 a.m. and defibrillation at 11:43 a.m

The EMT realizes that the best means of preventing failure of the AED is to:

check the AED and its supplies at the beginning of each shift.

obtain a second set of batteries when the original set is no longer functional.

check the electrodes monthly and replace when expired.

always make sure that the AED is kept clean and free of damage

check the AED and its supplies at the beginning of each shift.

A 66-year-old female patient has been struck by a car. Your assessment reveals gurgling respirations, rapid breathing, and cool, diaphoretic skin. You also observe bruising to the chest and abdomen. Which one of the following should you do immediately?

Determine the blood pressure.

Evaluate for shock.

Administer high-concentration oxygen.

Suction the airway.

Suction the airway.

The EMT understands that when paramedics administer IV fluids as treatment for hemorrhagic shock, the fluids will:

stabilize the shock by restoring needed electrolytes.

do nothing to get more oxygen to the cells.

enable the lungs to better oxygenate the blood.

reverse the shock by increasing the blood pressure.

do nothing to get more oxygen to the cells.

When presenting information on cardiac arrest and automated external defibrillation to a community group, a man asks why people should perform CPR prior to the arrival of EMS if they are going to provide a shock. Which one of the following should be your reply?

"In many cases, CPR can reverse the cardiac arrest, making a shock by the AED unnecessary."

"Immediate CPR can prolong the period in which the heart can be shocked following cardiac arrest."

"CPR is needed to keep blood flowing through the body so the EMTs can give the patient IV medications when they arrive."

"In the American Heart Association's Chain of Survival, CPR is the most important link in surviving cardiac arrest."

"In the American Heart Association's Chain of Survival, CPR is the most important link in surviving cardiac arrest."

A patient with a severe gastrointestinal bleed is in shock. Which one of the following should best correct the patient's underlying problem?

Blood replacement

Intravenous fluids

High-flow oxygen

Replace lost electrolytes

Blood replacement

At an in-service on shock, the presenter asks if anyone can tell him something about irreversible shock. Which statement made by an EMT is correct?


"If the pupils are dilated, the patient is in irreversible shock."

"To survive, the patient in irreversible shock needs a large amount of IV fluids."

"In irreversible shock, the carotid pulse is weak, but the radial pulse is strong."

"Even with treatment, if shock has reached the irreversible stage, death will result."

"Even with treatment, if shock has reached the irreversible stage, death will result."

Which one of the following links in the American Heart Association's Chain of Survival must occur first, if a patient is to survive cardiac arrest?

Early defibrillation

Early advanced life support

Early CPR

Early access

Early access

You have been called for a 57-year-old female who has choked on a large pill. On arrival you find the patient collapsed on the floor with family by her side. Your assessment reveals her to be unresponsive, not breathing, and pulseless. Which one of the following should you do immediately?

Perform five abdominal thrusts.

Open the airway and attempt ventilation.

Apply the AED and hit the "analyze" button.

Start chest compressions.

Open the airway and attempt ventilation.

The AED should never be applied to a patient who is not in cardiac arrest because some patients in:

ventricular fibrillation may have a pulse.

asystole may still have a pulse.

ventricular tachycardia may have a pulse.

ventricular fibrillation may be conscious and alert.

ventricular tachycardia may have a pulse.

You are reading a prehospital care report and notice that the patient was defibrillated as soon as the EMTs arrived on scene, even though no CPR was done prior. Which one of the following should you assume?

Asystole was the initial heart rhythm.

The patient was under eight years of age.

The patient had a very weak pulse.

Down time was less than four minutes.

Down time was less than four minutes.

You have just applied the AED to a female patient in cardiac arrest and the machine is ready to analyze the heart rhythm. Which one of the following instructions is appropriate at this time?

"Stop CPR and clear the patient."

"Stop CPR but continue to check for a pulse."

"Stop chest compressions but continue ventilation."

"Continue CPR until we see if a shock is advised."

"Stop CPR and clear the patient."

Which one of the statements about proper care for the adult patient in cardiac arrest is true?

"If two EMTs are performing CPR, a ratio of 30 compressions to two ventilations can be used."

"It is important to always check for a pulse immediately after the AED has delivered a shock."

"When checking for a patient's pulse, the EMT should take no more than five seconds."

"When using an AED, the machine should be turned on before applying the electrodes."

"When using an AED, the machine should be turned on before applying the electrodes."

The EMT knows that the cause underlying distributive shock is:

dilation of the blood vessels.

loss of blood volume.

damaged heart with poor contractility.

poor fluid intake.

dilation of the blood vessels.

While cleaning a gun, a 44-year-old patient accidentally shot himself in the abdomen. On arrival, you observe the patient on the floor lying on his side with his legs drawn to his chest. Blood is evident on his shirt and pants. Which one of the following indicates the correct sequence of events when caring for this patient?

Perform primary and secondary assessments, move to the stretcher for immediate transport, start positive pressure ventilation en route to the hospital

Transfer to the ambulance, rapid transport, primary assessment and oxygen therapy performed en route to the hospital

Transfer to the ambulance, perform the primary assessment and rapid secondary assessment, provide oxygen therapy, rapid transport

Perform the primary assessment, administer high-flow oxygen, perform a rapid secondary assessment, transfer to the stretcher, rapid transport

Perform the primary assessment, administer high-flow oxygen, perform a rapid secondary assessment, transfer to the stretcher, rapid transport

Which one of the following conditions could be responsible for causing obstructive shock?

Infection throughout the body

Loss of blood in the urine

Poor transfer of oxygen at the capillary level

Blood clots in the lungs

Blood clots in the lungs

The EMT should request advanced life support (ALS) backup for a patient in cardiac arrest because:

cardiac arrest patients must be transported by ALS personnel.

paramedics must be present in order for the EMT to use the AED.

ALS care is superior to basic life support care, even with the AED.

ALS treatment decreases the possibility of the patient going back into cardiac arrest once successful defibrillation has occurred.

ALS treatment decreases the possibility of the patient going back into cardiac arrest once successful defibrillation has occurred.

You have been called to transport a patient in septic shock from the emergency department of a local hospital to the critical care unit of another. Two nurses will be accompanying you. As a knowledgeable EMT, you recognize that this state of shock has been caused by:

blood loss.

infection.

failing heart.

lung dysfunction.

infection.

Which one of the following unresponsive patients would the EMT recognize as in cardiac arrest?

Female who has an occasional gasp for a breath but no palpable carotid pulse

Male with an absent radial pulse but breathing 20 times a minute

Female who is not breathing and has a heart rate of 24 beats per minute

Male patient with a heart rate of 16 beats per minute and agonal respirations

Female who has an occasional gasp for a breath but no palpable carotid pulse

Resuscitation started during what phase of cardiac arrest provides the best chance for survival?

Bradycardic

Electrical

Circulatory

Metabolic

Electrical

The AED has just been applied to a female cardiac arrest patient. After analyzing the heart rhythm, it provides a "No Shock Advised" message. The EMT should immediately:

check the patient for breathing and a pulse.

provide two minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

check the electrodes for proper placement.

analyze the patient's heart rhythm.

check the patient for breathing and a pulse.

A patient is lying under a tree after being involved in a motor-vehicle collision. She states that immediately after the crash, she felt okay, but now her legs are numb and tingling. She also has lower back discomfort. What question is it most important for the EMT to ask first?

"Did someone move you from the car?"

"Are you allergic to any medications?"

"Do you have a history of back problems?"

"Do you think that you had a seizure?"

"Did someone move you from the car?"

You have been called for an 87-year-old male who fell in his kitchen while making breakfast. He states that he did hit his forehead but managed to catch himself on the way down and did not hit the ground hard. Your assessment reveals him to have kyphosis of the thoracic and cervical spine, but does not reveal any neurological deficits. Which one of the following is appropriate in the care of this patient?

Place a soft cervical collar instead of the rigid cervical spine immobilization collar.

Apply a rigid collar and prepare the patient for any discomfort that the collar may cause.

Avoid application of a rigid collar due to the natural deformity of the cervical spine.

Disregard application of a rigid collar since the patient has no neurological deficits.

Apply a rigid collar and prepare the patient for any discomfort that the collar may cause.

Which one of the following shows that the EMT is correctly assessing motor function in the arms of a patient with potential spine injuries?

"I need you to flex both arms across your chest."

"I am going to feel for a pulse in your wrist."

"I am going to move your arm; tell me if it hurts."

"Can you tell me what finger I am touching?"

"I need you to flex both arms across your chest."

You pull up to the scene of a single-car motor-vehicle collision. Emergency Medical Responders (EMRs) are maintaining in-line manual spinal stabilization of the 56-year-old driver who was unrestrained when she struck a tree at a high rate of speed. As you approach the vehicle, you note that she appears unresponsive with blood coming from her nose and ears. Which one of the following instructions to the EMRs is most appropriate?

"Let's put a cervical collar on her, and then move her out of the car onto the ground where we will immobilize her to the long backboard."

"Let me conduct the primary assessment, and then we can place a vest-type extrication device on her to get her to the backboard."

"Let me conduct the primary assessment and place a cervical collar on her, and then let's quickly move her to the long board."

"After I do the primary and secondary assessment, we will need to get her onto the stretcher for immediate transport."

"Let me conduct the primary assessment and place a cervical collar on her, and then let's quickly move her to the long board."

Which one of the following signs or symptoms best indicates the patient has suffered an injury to the thoracic spine?

Cool and diaphoretic skin

Tingling in the legs

Altered mental status

Paralysis of the arms

Tingling in the legs

A male driver was ejected from his vehicle after it rolled several times at a high rate of speed. As you approach the patient you note that he is unresponsive and struggling to breathe. He also has a laceration to the left side of his face and multiple contusions to his legs. After assigning another EMT to take manual in-line spinal stabilization, what should you do?

Insert an oropharyngeal airway.

Apply a properly sized cervical collar.

Open the airway using the jaw-thrust maneuver.

Start positive pressure ventilation.

Open the airway using the jaw-thrust maneuver.

A patient with head, neck, and back pain has just been fully immobilized to the long backboard. Which one of the following instructions should you provide to your team next?

"Maintain manual in-line spinal stabilization until he is on the stretcher."

"Loosen the collar so you can palpate the back of the neck."

"Check for pedal pulses before we move him to the stretcher."

"Remove the chest strap so he can breathe easier now that his head and legs are secured."

"Check for pedal pulses before we move him to the stretcher."

Based on the structure of the nervous system, which one of the following is true?

A stroke represents an injury to the peripheral nervous system.

A deep laceration to the arm can sever peripheral nerves.

Numbness of the leg secondary to a fracture is caused by a central nervous system injury.

A gunshot wound to the spinal cord will directly damage the peripheral nerves.

A deep laceration to the arm can sever peripheral nerves.

When performing the primary assessment on a patient with an isolated spinal-cord injury, you note that he is in severe respiratory distress and struggling to breathe. Where should you suspect the spinal-cord injury has occurred?

Cervical spine

Thoracic spine

Lumbar spine

Diaphragm

Cervical spine

You arrive on the scene of a two-car motor-vehicle collision. The patient was the unrestrained driver of a car that struck another from behind at 25 mph. In the course of the collision, the patient flew forward and struck the windshield with his head. No airbags were deployed. The patient extricated himself and is not complaining of any head, neck, or back pain; however, you do note a small cut on his hand, which occurred as he was getting out of the car. When asked about preexisting medical problems he tells you that he did have herniated disks in his lumbar spine repaired several years ago. Which one of the following should provide the EMT with the strongest reason to immobilize this patient to the long spine board?

Laceration to the hand

Self-extrication of the patient

Mechanism of injury

History of back surgery

Mechanism of injury

You have arrived on a scene in which one person has been shot in the abdomen. As you approach the patient, you note that he is sitting up and talking with the police. He is holding a blood-soaked towel over the left upper quadrant of his abdomen. Which one of the following is your initial action in caring for this patient?

Expose the abdomen to assess the gunshot wound.

Obtain a pulse rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure.

Take manual in-line spinal stabilization.

Determine the need for a nasal or oral airway.

Take manual in-line spinal stabilization.

The EMT is caring for a patient who has a problem with the autonomic component of his nervous system. Which one of the following signs or symptoms might be evident?

Inability to move facial muscles

Difficulty walking

Elevated heart rate

Trouble remembering his name

Elevated heart rate

A football player was struck in the head and is complaining of a headache and nausea. He also states that he has pain to his upper back and tingling in his left hand. The EMT is providing proper care for the patient when he:

does not place the patient on a long board due to the presence of shoulder pads.

removes the helmet to better assess the airway and head.

leaves the helmet in place but removes the face mask.

removes the shoulder pads to apply a cervical collar.

leaves the helmet in place but removes the face mask.

A young female involved in a motor-vehicle collision is complaining of neck pain that was the result of a lateral-type mechanism. Based on this information, what type of collision most likely took place?

The patient's car rear-ended another car.

Another car struck the patient's car from behind.

The patient's car was struck from the side.

The patient's car struck a utility pole head on.

The patient's car was struck from the side.

Which one of the following is the most commonly injured area of the spinal cord?2/2 pts

Cervical spine

Sacral spine

Thoracic spine

Lumbar spine

Cervical spine

You have been called to a public building for a 32-year-old male patient who fell down a flight of stairs. As you pull up, he walks to the ambulance and states that he would like to be looked at because his shoulder and lower back hurt. You immediately take in-line manual spinal stabilization and examine his back, which reveals no sign of injury. How should you immobilize this patient?

Have the patient lie on the ground and immobilize in the usual fashion.

Place a cervical collar on the patient and transfer him to the stretcher.

Place the long board on the stretcher and carefully assist the patient onto the long board.

Place a long board behind the patient and immobilize in a standing position.

Place a long board behind the patient and immobilize in a standing position.

An elderly patient has fallen down a flight of stairs and is complaining of neck and back pain as well as weakness to both legs. The primary assessment reveals no life threats to the airway, breathing, or circulation. Manual in-line spinal stabilization is being maintained. Which of the following should the EMT do next?

Complete the secondary assessment looking for injuries.

Place a cervical collar and immobilize to the long spine board.

Place an oral airway and begin positive pressure ventilation.

Apply high-flow oxygen and move to the stretcher for transport.

Complete the secondary assessment looking for injuries.

A patient involved in a diving accident has his head positioned so that his left cheek is touching his left shoulder. He states that he has severe pain in his neck and it hurts to move his head. He denies numbness, tingling, or decreased strength in his arms or legs. Which one of the following is the EMT's best course of action?

Avoid use of a cervical collar or backboard and transport in the patient's current position.

Carefully straighten the head and neck so that a cervical collar can be placed.

Avoid palpation of the cervical spine and apply a vest-type spinal immobilization device.

Stabilize and maintain the head in the position in which the patient is holding it.

Stabilize and maintain the head in the position in which the patient is holding it.

For a person to make a fist, which one of the following must occur?

The peripheral nervous system must send a message to the brain and then back through the peripheral nervous system.

The central nervous system must send a message through the spinal cord and then to the peripheral nerves.

The central nervous system must send a message through the spinal cord and then to the autonomic nervous system.

The muscles must signal the brain to send a message through the autonomic nervous system.

The central nervous system must send a message through the spinal cord and then to the peripheral nerves.

A young intoxicated male patient cannot move his left arm and leg after diving into the shallow end of a pool and hitting the bottom head first. The EMT should recognize which one of the following mechanisms as most likely to be responsible for this injury?

Penetration

Rotation

Distraction

Compression

Compression

A patient has been struck in the back by a heavy piece of wood that was being bent to make a form for a concrete arch. He is responsive, but cannot feel or move his legs. He has bruising to his back and is incontinent of urine. The skin below the injury site is red and warm. As a knowledgeable EMT, you should realize that:

the paralysis may resolve.

the ability to feel will return.

a cervical collar is unnecessary.

the paralysis is permanent.

the paralysis may resolve.

A 43-year-old male has fallen from a roof and cannot move or feel his arms or legs. When assessing the patient, which one of the following signs would lead the EMT to suspect the patient is suffering from spinal shock?

Cyanosis to the finger tips

Cool and moist skin

Heart rate of 68 beats per minute

Seizure activity

Heart rate of 68 beats per minute

An Emergency Medical Responder reports that a patient has bruising to the lumbar area of the back. Based on this statement, the EMT should expect to find bruising in which area?

Upper back

Lower back

Buttocks

Neck

Lower back

Which one of the following instructions from one EMT to another shows appropriate application of a cervical spine immobilization collar?

"I need you to extend the patient's chin backward a little so I can fit the collar under his chin."

"Keep his head in neutral position while I apply the cervical spine immobilization collar."

"Let's log roll the patient to one side so I can apply the cervical spine immobilization collar."

"Carefully flex his head forward a little so I can pass the collar underneath his neck."

"Keep his head in neutral position while I apply the cervical spine immobilization collar."

A male patient fell 20 feet from a cliff to a trail below. The primary assessment shows him to be confused, with an open airway and shallow breathing. His pulse is 72 beats per minute and his blood pressure is 78/50 mmHg. The skin is warm and flushed. The patient has no motor ability or sensation in his legs. Which one of the following is the most likely cause of this patient's presentation?

Spinal injury

Hemorrhagic shock

Hypoglycemia

Internal bleeding

Spinal injury

Which one of the following is occurring in the body when a person is in shock?

The blood has an adequate amount of oxygen, but not enough nutrients for cell survival.

The cells are not getting enough oxygen and waste products are accumulating.

The amount of oxygen to the cells is adequate, but CO2 is not being eliminated.
i
The cells are getting glucose and other nutrients, but not oxygen.

The cells are not getting enough oxygen and waste products are accumulating.

Assessment findings of a driver who was ejected from his vehicle in a rollover-type collision include unresponsiveness and bruising to the abdominal and pelvic areas along with an open femur fracture. The patient has an open airway and is breathing at 32 times per minute. The skin is cool and clammy and the radial pulses are weak. Manual in-line spinal stabilization is being maintained. Which one of the following is the EMT's initial intervention?

Obtain a blood pressure.

Apply a cervical collar.

Examine the fracture site.

Assist respirations.

Assist respirations.

Your patient sustained blunt trauma to the chest in a motor-vehicle collision, and you suspect shock. While conducting the reassessment, which one of the following findings best indicates that the patient is deteriorating?

Blood oozing from an abdominal laceration

Heart rate 124 beats per minute

Restless and confused mental status

Blood pressure 86/50 mmHg

Blood pressure 86/50 mmHg

A construction worker has a metal rod impaled in his right forearm. Assessment of the injury indicates heavy bleeding from around the impaled object. Which one of the following should you do first?

Place a tourniquet above the injury site.

Apply pressure on the rod to stabilize it.

Apply direct pressure around the rod.

Attempt once to remove the metal rod.

Apply direct pressure around the rod.

When performing the primary assessment, which one of the following signs or symptoms best shows that the patient is in shock?

Vomitus in the airway

Radial pulse of 72 beats per minute

Skin that is cool and diaphoretic

Crackles heard in both lungs

Skin that is cool and diaphoretic

A patient has suffered an open crush injury to his elbow. As you approach, you note the patient sitting upright holding a towel to his elbow. Although the towel is soaked with blood, the elbow does not appear to be actively bleeding. Your first action in caring for this patient should be to:

place a sterile dressing over the injury.

apply oxygen through a nonrebreather mask.

examine the patient's elbow.

evaluate the patient's airway.

evaluate the patient's airway.

A female patient has been involved in a motorcycle crash. Your scene size-up reveals her to be unresponsive and lying in the roadway. It also appears that her left leg has been amputated at the knee. Which one of the following should you do immediately?

Cover the knee with a sterile dressing.

Perform the jaw-thrust maneuver.

Locate the amputated leg.

Assess the leg for bleeding.

Perform the jaw-thrust maneuver.

A patient has suffered abrasions to the legs after falling on a moving treadmill. In relation to the function of the skin, the EMT should be most concerned about:

swelling and bruising.

loss of body heat.

risk for infection.

formation of scar tissue.

risk for infection.

Which one of the following types of injuries is most likely to result in capillary bleeding only?

Laceration

Avulsion

Penetration

Abrasion

Abrasion

Which one of the following assessment findings indicates that a patient, who has suffered blood loss after being shot, is in an early stage of shock?

Confused and anxious, pulse 144, BP 82/palpation, cool skin that is mottled

Slightly confused, pulse 116, BP 112/90 mmHg, warm skin that is flushed

Confused, pulse 44, BP 110/68 mmHg, cool and cyanotic skin

Alert and anxious, pulse 96, BP 134/88 mmHg, pale and cool skin

Alert and anxious, pulse 96, BP 134/88 mmHg, pale and cool skin

You have been dispatched for a patient whose arm was caught in a grinding machine. Assessment reveals a deformed arm covered with a bloody towel. The patient is alert and anxious, and he has a patent airway. His breathing is adequate. Radial pulse is fast but strong. Which one of the following should you do next?

Administer oxygen through a nonrebreather mask.

Perform a secondary assessment focusing on his arm.

Start positive pressure ventilation.

insert an oropharyngeal airway and administer oxygen.

Administer oxygen through a nonrebreather mask.

Which one of the following patients would the EMT recognize as suffering from an evisceration injury?

Female shot in the chest with "bubbling" coming from the wound as the patient breathes

Male patient with a knife impaled in this right upper abdomen

Male patient with a loop of intestine protruding from an open surgical wound

Female with a large flap of skin that has been torn loose from her scalp

Male patient with a loop of intestine protruding from an open surgical wound

You are called for a two-year-old boy who fell and cut his arm. While you are en route to the call, the dispatcher informs you that the patient has hemophilia. As an EMT, you should recognize that:

the patient's blood is infectious.

the bleeding may be significant.

an elevated temperature will be present.

a mask will need to be worn.

the bleeding may be significant

A man has been bitten in his arm by his dog. He states that the bite occurred several hours earlier when he accidentally stepped on the dog's paw. When asked, he tells you that the dog is up-to-date on all of her shots, including the rabies vaccine. Assessment reveals two small puncture wounds to the hand with some bruising in the surrounding tissue. The patient wants to refuse treatment and transport. Given these assessment findings, which one of the following indicates the primary reason the patient should be seen in the emergency department?

Prevent formation of a contusion

Need to complete a police report

Risk for infection

Possible shock from blood loss

Risk for infection

The EMT's initial concern when treating a patient with a gunshot wound to the chest is:2/2 pts

looking for an exit wound.

applying sterile bandages.

ensuring an open airway.

treating for shock.

ensuring an open airway.

A 54-year-old male patient has been involved in a car crash. Window glass has caused an open wound to his upper neck. Which one of the following dressings is best for this injury?

Occlusive dressing

Self-adhering roller gauze

Sterile gauze

Moist sterile gauze

Occlusive dressing

Which one of the following would the EMT recognize as a function of the skin?

Prevention of blood loss

Regulation of temperature

Elimination of carbon dioxide

Dissipation of internal cold

Regulation of temperature

Which statement made by the EMT shows an understanding of bandaging an open wound?

"After you apply a bandage, a dressing should be placed over it."

"Bandages are sterile gauze pads used to stop bleeding."

"I use bandaging material to secure a dressing in place."

"You must always make sure that the bandage is sterile."

"I use bandaging material to secure a dressing in place."

Prior to your arrival on the scene of a motorcycle crash, an Emergency Medical Responder contacts you via radio and reports that there is one patient who has an avulsion to her left arm. As a knowledgeable EMT, you should anticipate which one of the following?

Loose flap of skin torn on her left arm

Long and deep laceration with moderate bleeding

Bruised skin with a portion of bone protruding

Torn skin with an underlying fracture

Loose flap of skin torn on her left arm

A 62-year-old male was the restrained driver of a car that was hit on the driver's side. Emergency Medical Responders have extricated and fully immobilized him with a cervical collar and long board. When asked, he complains of dizziness as well as leg and arm pain. Assessment reveals multiple contusions and deformity to his left forearm and a laceration with minor bleeding to the left side of his face. His airway is open and his breathing is labored. A rapid radial pulse is felt. Skin is cool and dry. Which assessment finding should the EMT address first?

Labored breathing

Bleeding from facial laceration

Rapid pulse

Complaint of dizziness

Labored breathing

You arrive at a meat packing plant to find a 30-year-old male cut in the wrist with a sharp knife. The patient appears pale and blood is spurting from the laceration. Which one of the following should you do immediately?

Apply direct pressure to the laceration.

Assess and manage the airway.

Obtain a blood pressure.

Apply 15 lpm of oxygen via nonrebreather face mask.

Apply direct pressure to the laceration.

Which one of the following statements about dressings and bandages is true?

All dressings must be airtight to prevent contamination.

Dressings should be placed into open wounds.

Dressings are placed over bandages.

Bandages should not be applied until bleeding is controlled.

Bandages should not be applied until bleeding is controlled.

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