developing a contingency between response and outcome
a type of instrumental learning
consequences increase behavior probability
consequences decrease behavior probability
is a cue, not a US/CS
it is a signal for when response will lead to consequence
can increase behavior probability, but not elicit behavior
ie: starting whistle for racing swimmers
successive approximations to the desired response are reinforced
ie: helping autistic children learn language
learning a complicated sequence of reponses by adding one discrete "link" (step) at a time
ie: teaching pets unusual tricks
training steps in reverse order
behavioral consequences that makes future behavior more likely
reinforcing events that occur because of their natural characteristics and inherit ability to reinforce behavior
ie: sex, food
reinforceing eventst that function as reinforcers because they are consistently associated with one or more primary reinforcers
ie: if u get good grades, you get $
behaviora consequence that leads to a reduction of future behavior
strong & enduring aversive stimuli
the most effective suppressors
should be applied immediately after the targeted behavior
forego immediate reward for greater future reward
stimulus, response, consequence
3 components to instrumental conditioning
-helps connect info from the sensory & motor cortices to mak a behavioral response
-may serve as storage for S-R associates
may be the physiological basis for the "wanting" aspect of reinforcement
reward prediction hypothesis
dopamine is involved in predicting future reward
may mediate "liking"
ventral tegmental area
-One of the "pleasure centers"
-the center for dopamine neuromodulation.
may provide info about "liking" that helps stimulate VTA's "wanting" system
a stong habit maintained despite harmful consequences
involves creaving a high "euphoria" & avoiding withdrawal
addiction to certain behaviors, rather than drugs
ie: gambling, eating, sex, work
Indirectly inhibits dopamine production; may help treat heroin addicts and compulsive gamblers.
Dopamine gives reinforcers their "goodness."
Incentive salience hypothesis
Dopamine modulates "wanting" rather than "liking" (how hard an organism is willing to work for reinforcement).
Reward prediction hypothesis
Dopamine signals whether reinforcement is expected