AP World History Vocabulary Chapters 1-3

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Vocabulary for AP World History Chapters 1-3

Civilization

Civilization is an advanced state of human society, which includes high level of government, science,and industry. This would mean humans have found a suitable place to build a community in which they have modern day aspects such as government, industry, and communication.

Culture

Culture is a form or stage of civilization. This is a way of a nations Civilization , for example Egypt's Culture would be different from Greek Culture and how each Civilization build upon their society and learn from it.

History

History is dealing with past events usually in connection with the Human race.
From our personal History we can learn from our mistakes, from our country we can learn more information about our ancestors mistakes and what good also came out of it.
From the world we can learn so much more.

Stone Age

The Stone Age is a time in human history identified by the use of stone, divided into 3 periods, the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic . From this time period we can tell that humans then were getting to know their surroundings and what materials were good for certain things, such as the use of stone for tools and weapons.

Paleolithic

Paleolithic is the beginning of the Stone Age, it started in Africa with stone tools and later progressed into antlers and bones.
From the Paleolithic time period in the Stone Age we can say that Africans got to know their surroundings and were able to make use of it earlier than the other civilizations.

Neolithic Foragers

Neolithic Foragers are people who Forage during the Neolithic Stone Age.
From this we know that the people who lived in the Neolithic Period were well aware of their surroundings and knew that stone was a good material to use for tools, and when they foraged they knew what to forage and what not to.

Agricultural Revolutions

An Agricultural Revolution is a transition from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one with agriculture and and settlement. This greatly increased the population.
From Agricultural Revolutions we can see that cultures needed to find another way to collect food, they found wheat and started to harvest that, then they made settlements too and had communities.

Holocene

Holocene is the second part of the Quarternary Period, which began around 10,000 years ago.
From Holocene we can learn many things that has happened over the passed time in the stone age.

Megaliths

Megaliths are great big rocks. They can be used in construction and also used as a menhir or a dolmen.
From the Megaliths we can see that the cultures had a way of construction and they also used them as menhirs, a big tall monument, and as dolmens, used as a tomb. If the cultures used the Megaliths as dolmens there might be a religion and a belief in afterlife.

Babylon

Babylon was the capital of Babylonia and was most famous for its culture and for its magnificence. Was the capital of Babylonia and later of the Chaldean Empire.
Babylon was a great city and capital of Babylonia and we can see that Babylon had a great government system since it was the capital of a country and an Empire later on.

Sumerians

A Sumerian is a member of the people who founded and established Sumer.
If it wasn't for the sumerians establishing Sumer then we wouldn't have our writing that we have, they also had ziggurats which were temples.

Semitic

Semitic is a subfamily of Afroasiatic languages including Hebrew, Arabic, Aramaic, Ethiopic, and Phoenicians.
This tells us that there were many languages that were needed to be taught to traders to trade to other cultures and that would mean different types of money too.

City-State

A City-State is a supreme state with an autonomous city with its own dependencies.
City-States are important with government because then the government can keep control of all cities in one state.

Hammurabi

Hammurabi was an 18th century B.C. king of Babylonia.
Hammurabi was the first ruler of the Babylonian Empire and was a great military general, he won many battles.

Ziggurat

A Ziggurat is a temple built by sumerian origin. This means that the Sumerians had a type of religion and that they believed in a god or more.

Amulets

An Amulet is a piece of jewelry used to ward off any evil, and bring good fortune.
The Amulets here tell us that the Sumerians believed in some sort of evil that would harm them if they either did not wear the amulet or did something to do so.

Pharaoh

A Pharaoh is the Egyptian King, and head chief of military. This would mean Egypt had a form of government and a form of military.

Ma'at

Ma'at is the goddess which personifies law and righteousness.
This means that there is more than one god for the egyptians and that means they are polytheistic.

Pyramid

A pyramid is used in ancient Egypt for tombs.
Since the Egyptians have a religious system and tombs we can probably tell that they believe in the afterlife.

Memphis

Memphis is a ruined city in Lower Egypt, it was the ancient capital of Egypt.
This also gives us a hint at what kind of government Egypt had.

Thebes

Thebes is an ancient city in Upper Egypt, it was formerly its capital, the ruins are located in modern day Karnak and Luxor.
From Thebes and Memphis's ruins we see that the repetitive need of a capital is needed and therefore we can say that Egypt needed government.

Hieroglyphics

Hieroglyphics is an ancient Egypt writing in pictographic script.
This means that the Egyptians made a efficient writing system to communicate well and able to trade with other people tool

Pyrus

Pyrus belongs to a subdivision of rose bushes having pomes for fruit, includes apple, crab apple, pear, chokeberry, sorb, and mountain ash.
This we can tell that foragers knew that this plant was a healthy one and can be eaten from.

Mummy

A mummy is a dead human being preserved by the ancient egyptian process.
The mummy was placed in a tomb with things the person had or wanted in the afterlife with them, this can tell us that they indeed have a religious system and believed in afterlife.

Harappa

Harappa is a village in Pakistan which was the site of successive cities in the indus river civilization.
The site of the ancient Harappa city contains the ruins of a bronze age fortified city, and this would mean that before the stone age people used bronze for their tools and other things.

Mihenjo-Daro

Mihenjo-Daro was a excavation site in Pakistan near the Indus River, 6 successful ancient cities were build here.
If there were 6 successful cities in the one archeological dig site then the site would have covered a big area and would mean that the Cities were close and weren't different in culture.

Loess

A Loess is a rich deposit of dirt, sand, and sometimes clay, which was formed by wind common in Europe and Asia.
This could be useful to cultures who are next to these deposits, if they have clay in them they could gather the clay and make pots, bricks to make houses, and they can use the dirt for their crops too.

Shang

Shang is Chinese dynasty that had ruled for about 3000 years form 18th to the 21st century B.C.
Lots of poetry was made from this dynasty and used the Loess that were in asia to get lots of clay.

Zhou

Zhou is a Chinese dynasty that ruled for about 900 years , from 1126 B.C. to 255 B.C.
The Zhou dynasty introduced ox-drawn plows, iron, crossbows and horseback riding.

Confucius

Confucius was a Chinese teacher and philosopher.
His wisdom was the foundation of a religion called Confucianism, which means that Chinese culture had a religious system , more than just one religion.

Daoism

Daoism was a philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu.
This looks like another type of religion and that would mean that there are different religions.

Yin - Yang

Yin is a dark and feminine principle, Yang is a light masculine principle. Both of these symbols influences the destinies of creatures and things.
This is a philosophic item and not to much of a religion by itself but probably just an amulet of good luck.

Kush

Kush is a country of the descendants of Cush (ancient Ethiopia ) including Nubia and Modern Sudan and the territory of southern Egypt.
This country was a big and great trading center and people all ver would come to trade.

Olmec

Olmec is a Mesoamerican civilization along the southern gulf of Mexico, had long distance trade networks, pyramids and ceremonial centers.
This civilization was considered to be "Mother Culture" of Mexico. They were the first known organized tribe in Mexico and they had the ritual ball game that they contributed to history.

Chavin

Chavin is a Peruvian culture flourishing to the 1st and 6th century A.D.
Chavin made ch'arki which was Llama jerky, and this was commonly traded with other people.

Llamas

Llamas are a wooly-haired south-american mammal believed to be a domesticated variety of the guanaco.
Llamas were important to the Chavin because that is what the Chavin ate and sold. They made jerky out of them and sold it for other things.

Iron Age

The Iron Age is the period of human history after the stone and bronze age , marked by the use of iron for weapons.
This is great for the humans who were living during this age because their tools are more efficient and now whoever has iron can trade it for more valuable things.

Hittites

A Hittite is a member of an ancient people who established a powerful empire in Asia Minor and Syria.
The Hittites were important because they were the first ones who understood the Indo-European languages, and the establishment of of the non-Semetic culture outside Fertile Crescent.

Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut was the queen of Egypt during the 15th Century B.C., she also built a great mortuary temple at Deir el Bahri near Thebes.
Queen Hatshepsut was Pharaoh of Egypt and was the first women to do so. This proved that women could do the same things men can do.

Akhenaten

Akhenaten was king of Egypt of the 18th dynasty. He moved his capital to Tell El Amarna and introduced the cult of Aten.
Akhenaten introduced the cult of Aten and this cult was monotheistic so that means that Egypt had another religion in its country.

Ramesses II

Ramesses II was the king of Egypt who ruled between 1304 and 1237 B.C. and built many monuments.
The monuments Ramesses II built Abu Simbel, the mortuary temple Ramesseum, and most importantly completed the Temple at Karnak.

Minoan

Minoan is an ancient civilization on the island of Crete. Dates back to 3000 to 1100 B.C.
This ancient civilization developed a system of writing, created fine artwork like pots, and jewelry, and became sailors and were masters at building.

Mycenae

Mycenae was an important city in southern Greece, in Agrolis.
Their pottery, artwork, and architecture are known to be complex.They had boardgames and simple plumbing methods.

Shaft Graves

Shaft Graves are a type of burial structure formed from a deep shaft sunk naturally into a rock.
These graves were left only for the royal families of Greece.

Linear B

Linear B was an ancient system of writing representing a very early form of greek.
This language was descended from the older Linear A an undeciphered earlier script used for writing the Minoan language.

Mass Deportation

Mass Deportation is the act or an instance of deporting in large groups.
The practice of resettling population groups was a key constituent of the structural set up of Ancient Near Eastern states, meaning that kings of syrian could move people from city to city.

Library of Ashurbanipal

Library of Ashurbanipal named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the library has a collection of clay tablets containing texts from all over the place.
This is important because we know that they keep records of their own history and then now we can learn from their record they took then.

Israel

Israel is a republic in SW Asia, on the Mediterranean: formed as a Jewish state.
This place was important because it was the foundation of the Jewish people, and the homeland from where its ancient traditions.

Hebrew Bible

Hebrew Bible is a term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh. The Tanakh is a collection of Jewish texts which is a common source ofthe several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testamen.
This is important because this is a religion and people need a religion to base upon their trust and feelings.

First Temple

First Temple ,also known as Solomon's Temple, was the Holy Temple in ancient Jerusalem, There is no direct archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple.
This is important to people because it is religious and in this civilization Religion is big.

Monotheism

Monotheism is the belief in one god.
This is important because some civilizations like Egypt believe in many gods, polytheistic, and then some religions like Christianity believe in only one god.

Diaspora

Diaspora is the dispersal of the Jews to countries outside of Palestine after the Babylonian captivity.
This is important because many of the jews were hated and were killed.

Phoenicians

Phoenicians is the semetic language of Phoenicians.
The Phoenicians are members of an ancient Semitic group of North-Wesr Syria who ruled the trade of the ancient world in the first millennium bc and founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean.

Carthage

Carthage is an ancient city-state in North Africa near modern Tunis.
This city-state is important because it was a big factor in the establishment of the Roman Empire.

Neo-Babylonian Kingdom

The Neo-Babylonian Kingdom was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
This period in time is important because Babylonia had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria. Babylonia rebelled after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal in 627 B.C. and the seat of the Empire was again given to Babylonia

Political

Political is seeking power in the governmental or public affairs of a state.

Social

Social is seeking the companionship of others. Also the enjoyment of friends.

Economic

Economic pertains to the production, distribution, and use of income.

Environment

An Environment are external factors surrounding and affecting a given organism at any time.

Culture

A culture is a way or form of a Civilization, for example Egypt is a civilization and it has its own culture along with any other civilization has it's own culture.

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