An Indian soldier serving under British command.
Nation whose independence is limited by the control of a more powerful country
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Belief that one racial group is superior to another
Opium War 1839-1842
British gain access to Chinese markets by selling opium, from their colony in India, to the Chinese at a very low price
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during the Qing dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu, fought the British in the Opium War
Treaty of Nanjing
1842, ended Opium war, said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, not china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws. This treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws. One of these were Hong Kong.
Spheres of Influence
sections of a country where foreign nations enjoy special rights. China was split into these during the age of imperialism
Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)
Chinese peasant uprising, lasting 14 years, against the Qing Dynasty wherein 20 million Chinese are killed with the aid of foreign governments assisting the Qing to stay in power.
was a village school teacher, proved both inspiration and leadership for the Taiping rebellion. Wanted destruction of the Qing dynasty.
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
France and Britain co-operated to prop up the Chinese government and protect their interests during the attacks by the nationalists (known as Boxers-Fists of Righteous Harmony) in Peking against foreigners in the Capital of Beijing. Outcome of western powers assistance forces China to adopt an Open Door Policy to ALL foreign trade throughout China.
Chinese patriots who opposed foreign interference and colonization-known as the "Fists of the Righteous Harmony."
Advantages of Imperialism
Europeans brought new forms of: transportation(railroads and better roads), farm technology, communication(telegraph), rule of law and uniform legal system, better eductaion system, sanitary conditions and health reforms.
Disadvantages of Imperialism
Europeans exploit natural resources without adequate compensation (oil, ivory, gold, diamonds, food, etc.); traditional culture is broken down and replaced by European culture; local populations treated as inferior; European goods are forced on locals; local goods are repressed; colonies must grow cash crops, not food crops, so locals go hungry; native peoples forced to accept Christianity.
Berlin Conference of 1884
European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to divide Africa amongst one another, as if it was completely uninhabited; led by Otto Von Bismarck, signalling Germany's interest in overseas colonies and imperialism. No Africans were invited, although some Black South Aficans showed up.
Causes of Colonial Imperialism
Industrial Revolution led to a demand for more raw resources; European nationalism demanded colonies; Europeans needed more land for growing populations; Europeans wanted new markets to sell their goods in; Europeans had better weapons and technology; European desire to spread religion and culture; belief in Social Darwinism; desire for global empire.
A Zulu chief in Southern Africa in 1816 who used soldiers and good military organization to create a large centralized state.
Greeted by Henry Stanley with, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?", opposed slave trade, believed Africans were equal to Europeans, first European to travel to the center of Africa
A journalist hired to find David Livingstone and greeted the explorer with the now famous words: "Dr. Livingstone, I presume." He remained in Africa to carry on Livingstone's work, but he had a strong dislike for it. He was among the most accomplished and most noted European/American explorers of Africa.
King Leopold II
the king of Belgium from 1865 to 1909 and the real driving force behind the colonization of central Africa, became ruler of Congo Free State, 80 times larger than his own country, through treaties signed with locals unaware of what they were signing. Brutally exploited locals to produce rubber from plant life.
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa, Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was an empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism. Made money mining gold and diamonds in S. Africa.
Founded Rhodesia, modern Zimbabwe.
Dutch farmers in South Africa
English vs. Dutch settlers in South Africa. England won 1899-02, showed that English tactics were no good; used modern tactics of guerilla war and commando raids; British cruelly used concentration camps to contain Boer families while the men fought.
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910, imposing a system of racial segregation called apartheid after 1949
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal, in central South Africa, in the interior of the countryside.
Group of people who settle in a distant land but are still ruled by the government of their native land.
independent but less developed nation that is controlled by private business interests rather than by other govts. For example: Dole Pineapple Co. controls Hawaii.
in 1853, war breaks out between Russia and the Ottoman Empire for Russia to gain a warm water port in the Black Sea. Britain and France join the Ottoman Turks to win the fight and deny Russia use of the Crimean Peninsula.
English nurse who travelled to help the wounded in the Crimean War. Established sanitary nursing care units in military orgainizations. Founder of modern nursing, began professional education of nursing.
Human-made canal(waterway) that cut throught the isthmus of Suez. The canal linked the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Opened in 1869, it cut the time and distance to travel by water from Europe to the Indian Ocean and the spice trade. Taken over by the British in 1882 because the Egyptians couldn't make the construction payments.
Jewel in the Crown
British colony of India - so called because of its importance in the British Empire, both as supplier of raw materials and as a market for British trade goods - most valuable of all of Britain's colonies
British dominion over India (1757-1947), the Hindu word for "empire."
discontent with British administration in India led to numerous mutinies in 1857 and 1858, (1857) Hindus and Muslim sepoys refused to open cartridges that came in paper waxed with animal fat for religious reasons; killed British officers, and proclaimed restoration of the Mughal authority; Indians had different interests, and were crushed by the British
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Dutch East India Company
A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Richer and more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt and being bought out by the British
an economic and social region including the country's surrounding the pacific ocean, especially those in Asia.
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
was Siam king (now known as Thailand) who remained separate by promoting Western learning and maintaining friendly relations with the major European powers. He is remembered as a modernizer and spiritual leader of his country. The play, King and I, is based loosely on his life.
to incorporate a country or territory into another country or territory
Last Queen of Hawaii who gave the U.S. naval rights to Pearl Harbor in 1887. Deposed by American settlers in 1893. Opposed to U.S. annexation of Hawaii.
crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit
crops grown to feed the people within a country
the French colonies of the territory now occupied by Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
the only Southeast Asian country to retain its independence in the 1800s, now called Thailand.
southeast Asian country; part of British colonies until 1963; capital - Kuala Lumpur
Dutch East Indies
The discovery of oil and tin on the islands and the desire for more rubber plantations prompted the Dutch to gradually expand their control over Sumatra, part of Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, and Bali. Finally the Dutch ruled the whole island chain of Indonesia,
Pacific islands that were acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish American War
the name of a chain of 8 large and 100 or so smaller islands to which American merchants, missionaries, & planters came, eventually annexing the islands in 1898 and becoming the 50th state in 1950.