a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction.
a long linear polymer, in nucleus, formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix, contains info that determines inherited characteristics
a long linear polymer of nucleotides, in nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes, ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
plasma (cell) membrane
Phospholipid bi-layer containing cholesterol and proteins. Receptors for communication; regulates movement into and out of the cell. AKA semipermeable membrane.
fluid matrix found between the plasma membrane and the nucleus that acts as scaffolding for the organelles.
can act as a storage site, process energy, move materials, or manufacture substances
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work, a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue, the chemical a cell uses to store and transfer energy within itself.
site of protein synthesis in the cell.
the means for transport within the cell, serves to store and deliver the proteins made by the attached ribosomes. storage of enzymes and minerals and the folding of proteins. it is thought to be involved in the detoxification of chemicals and the metabolism of fats.
DNA is found in the nucleus in the form of chromatin and chromosomes. when a cell is not dividing, DNA is found in the form of loosely structured chromatin. but when a cell is dividing the DNA is seen in condensed rod-shaped bodies called chromosomes.
substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins, consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.
threadlike structures made of DNA bonded to various proteins and that carries the genes determining heredity.
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes, or the doubling of the chromosomes prior to division. occurs in both plant and animal cells.
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms. consists of a doubling of chromosomes and then two subsequent divisions. Thus the products are four "daughter cells" each with half the normal number of chromosomes.
The scientific classification of organisms into specially named groups based either on shared characteristics or on evolutionary relationships as inferred from the fossil record or established by genetic analysis.
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus or species
the major taxonomic group of animals and plants: Dog: Animal > Chordata > Mammal > Carnivore > Canidae > Canis > Canis Familiaris
homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative TRAITS
An organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb ---The big B would be dominant
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution
the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
consists of one dominant and one recessive trait
an individual which contains only one allele at the allelic pair; ex DD is Homozygous dominant and dd is homozygous recessive
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine
A functional group important in energy transfer (ATP and ADP).
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
messenger RNA (m-RNA)
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell, the form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell
transfer RNA (t-RNA)
RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain,
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
proteins that act as biological catalysts
any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
any of a group of proteins found in saliva and pancreatic juice and parts of plants, breaks the chemical bonds in starches
an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose
a digestive enzyme that breaks maltose into glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
Enzymes that continue the breakdown of polypeptides in the small intestine.
simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy,
any of a class of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that form part of a lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydrolysis
a sweet syrupy trihydroxy alcohol obtained by saponification of fats and oils
an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood, relaxation phase of the heartbeat
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen
the process by which cells obtain energy from an energy source without using oxygen
when a muscle continues to burn sugar but doesn't have enough oxygen do it properly and becomes sore
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group
a light soft silver-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, needed for proper muscle function
nerve cell located entirely in the central nervous system that integrates sensory information and sends motor commands
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands, the master gland of the endocrine system
located near the base of the neck, produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth, large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism
any one of four endocrine glands situated above or within the thyroid gland
either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
a pituitary hormone, widespread effects, stimulates growth of long bones, target to All body tissue and effect to Stimulates growth hormone and repair
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
initiates growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm production in males
causes thyroid gland cells to secrete T3 and T4; stimulates thyroid growth
hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
a corticosteroid hormone (trade name Cortone Acetate) normally produced by the adrenal cortex
Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.
The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood.
a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
a steroid hormone (trade name Lipo-Lutin) produced in the ovary
Mature cells, develop from osteoblasts, control day-to-day activities (each occupies a lacuna, a pocket sandwiched between layers of matrix
of or relating to the cheek region of the face
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
work best in dim light and enable you to see black, white, and shades of gray
work best in bright light and enable you to see colors
anything that has mass and takes up space
the order of an element in Mendeleyev's table of the elements, number of protons
the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
the mass (in atomic mass units) of an isotope of an element
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
a positively charged ion
a negatively charged ion
an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules
a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements according to atomic number as based on the periodic law
a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten
of or being a nonmetallic element that has some of the properties of metal
a chemical element lacking typical metallic properties
any of the chemically inert gaseous elements of the helium group in the periodic table
that which has mass and occupies space
a radioactive isotope of an element
atoms react by gaining or losing electrons so as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas, usually eight valence electrons
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
lewis electron dot diagram
the representation of an atom, ion or molecule, in which the element symbols stand for the nucleus and all inner level electrons while dots stand for outer level electrons
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
a pair of equal and opposite electric charges or magnetic poles separated by a small distance
any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
matter with a definite shape and volume
the process whereby heat changes something from a solid to a liquid
the process of extracting moisture
the pressure exerted by a vapor
the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state
the withdrawal of heat to change something from a liquid to a solid
(chemistry) a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
a mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
the dissolved substance in a solution
(pharmacology) a medicine consisting of an extract in an alcohol solution
a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency
a mixture in which different materials can be distinguished easily
(chemistry) a colloid in which both phases are liquids
the quantity of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent (yielding a saturated solution)
a process used to separate dissolved solids from a liquid, which is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid
(chemistry) any process determined by the atomic and molecular composition and structure of the substances involved
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
the principal ingredient of a mixture
(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen), measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions.
synthesis (combination) reactions
two or more simple substances are combined to form one new or more complex substance, Involve 2 or more reactants that combine to create a new product.
2H2 + O2 >>> 2H2O
single replacement reactions
an element replaces an element in another compound (AB+C -> CB+A)
double displacement reactions
Two compounds exchange ions to form 2 or more new compounds. Occur if precipitate, gas, or molecular substance (water) forms. Most common forms are 1) Precipitation, 2) Acid-Base neutralization reactions.
When an acid and base mix together, neutralize one another properties, and form a salt.
a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt
the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur
(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with evolution of heat
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat
a chemical reaction and its reverse proceed at equal rates
any compound of carbon and another element or a radical
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
any of a class of highly reactive chemical compounds
any of a class of organic compounds having a carbonyl group linked to a carbon atom in each of two hydrocarbon radicals
an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule
a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars
any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice
one form in which body fuel is stored, An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, a fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties; examples include oils, waxes, and steroids
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
an indicator that changes color in the presence of starch
a chemical indicator that, when added to a solution and heated, changes from blue to light green to red in the presence of increasing concentrations of sugar
conservation of momentum
the principle that the total linear momentum in a closed system is constant and is not affected by processes occurring inside the system
a variable quantity that can be resolved into components
newton's first law
an object at rest will stay at rest, an object that is moving will stay moving unless disturbed by an un balanced force.
a disposition to remain inactive or inert
newton's second law
When an object is acted on by one or more outside forces, the total force is equal to the mass of the object times the resulting acceleration., Force=Mass x Acceleration
newton's third law
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
(physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work
the energy of motion, used to do work
the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its position
a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second, English physicist who established the mechanical theory of heat and discovered the first law of thermodynamics (1818-1889)
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
kinetic theory of matter
the idea that all matter is made up of tiny particles in constant motion
The smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms; a group of like or different atoms held together by chemical forces
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperature; when volume increase, pressure decreases.
the physical law that the volume of a fixed mass of gas held at a constant pressure varies directly with the absolute temperature
the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigrade
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
heat absorbed or radiated during a change of phase at a constant temperature and pressure
Metric unit for measuring temperature; On this scale water freezes at zero and boils at 100.
the basic unit of thermodynamic temperature adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites, British physicist who invented the Kelvin scale of temperature and pioneered undersea telegraphy (1824-1907)
A temperature scale with the freezing point of water 32 degrees and the boiling point of 212 degrees is also known as, German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer and developed the scale of temperature that bears his name (1686-1736)
The temperature at which ice melts or water freezes, Fahrenheit 32..... celsius 0..... kelvin 273....
The point at which water at standard pressure boils
the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium
(cryogenics) the lowest temperature theoretically attainable (at which the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is minimal)
the unit of frequency, German physicist who with James Franck proved the existence of the stationary energy states postulated by Bohr (1887-1975)
a vibration of large amplitude produced by a relatively small vibration near the same frequency of vibration as the natural frequency of the resonating system
a quantum of electromagnetic radiation
arrangement of electromagnetic radiation--including radio waves, visible light from the Sun, gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, and microwaves--according to their wavelengths
change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
an elementary particle with negative charge
The relationship among electrical force, charges, and distance: The electrical force between two charges varies directly as the product of the charges and inversely as the square of the distance between them.
the force of repulsion (pushing) or attraction (pulling) between poles of magnets
the alignment of iron minerals in rock show that earth's what has reversed over time
electrical potential energy
the ability to move an electric charge from one point to another
the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts
an electrical device by which alternating current of one voltage is changed to another voltage
engine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction
the rate at which energy is drawn from a source that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit
meter that measures the potential difference between two points
dominant course (suggestive of running water) of successive events or ideas
a meter that measures the flow of electrical current in amperes
an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current
a circuit having its parts connected serially
the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites, a former unit of electric current (slightly smaller than the SI ampere), n. The practical unit of electric-current strength.
a closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit
(physics) the rate of doing work
a unit of power equal to 1 joule per second
the amount by which the mass of an atomic nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its constituent particles
the spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay
(physics) the change of one chemical element into another (as by nuclear decay or radioactive bombardment)
(physics) a process that alters the energy or structure or composition of atomic nuclei
the act of fusing (or melting) together
a nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
the branch of quantum physics that accounts for matter at the atomic level
theory of relativity
(physics) the theory that space and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts
Contraction phase of the heart.