Endocrine Outline and Review

106 terms by NanaCynthiaBurton

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what is the endocrine system

collection of glands that produce hormones

what are glands

group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals

which gland is the control center for all regulatory activities of the body

hypothalamus

what are pituitary glands

master gland, makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands

which gland produces homrones that can be influenced by factors such as emotions and changes in the seasons

pituitary gland

what are endorphins

chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain

which gland produces hormones that control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy

thyroid

4 tiny glands that functioni together and release hormones that regulates the level of calcium

parathyroid

what does calcitonin do

helps regulate calcium in the bones

what is the outer part of the adrenal gland

adrenal cortex

what is the inner part of the adrenal gland

adrenal medulla

adrenal cortex produces what hormone

corticosteroids

adrenal medulla produces what hormone

adrenaline

what does the hormone adrenaline do

increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress

which gland secretes melatonin

pineal body

what does melatonin do

helps regulate when you sleep at night and when you wake in the morning

what hormone does reproductive glands produce for males?

testosterone

what hormonde does reproductive glands produce for females

estrogen

what produces digestive enzymes

pancreas

what 2 hormones does the pancreas produce

insulin and glucagon

what do insulin and glucagon do

maintain a steady level of glucose in the blood and keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy

what is hyperthyroidism

conditioni in which levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are very high

what is hypothyroidism

condition in which levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are very low

synergist

an agent or process that aids in the process of another

Langerhans

a cluster of endocrine cells in the pancreas

graves disease

hyperthyroidism with a toxic goiter

hypercalcemia

excessive calcium in the blood

pineal

pertaining to the pineal gland

Addison disease

adrenal gland insufficiency

diabetes mellitus

deficiency or ineffectiveness of insulin

adrenal virilism

hypersecretions of androgens

pituitary dwarfism

under production of growth hormone

corticoid

steriodal hormone produced by the adrenal cortex

oxytocin

pituitary hormone that stimulates uterus to contract

gigantism

abnormal height and size of entire body

hypothyroidism

deficiency in the production of thyroid hormone

prolactin

hormone for milk production

acromegaly

enlargement of hands, face and feet of an adult

androgen

hormone that produces masculine characteristics

hirsutism

excessive body and facial hair in females

aldosteronism

excessive thirst and urination

another name for aldosteronism

Conn

DHEA is a

precursor to testosterone

Cushing Syndrome

hyperexcretion of cortisol

symptom of Cushing Syndrome

Moon face appearance

glycosylated

linked to glucose

cretinism

a congenital form of thyroid deficiency

gestational diabetes

diabetes that occurs during pregnancy

SAD stands for

seasonal affective disorder

SAD is

disorder of depression that occurs every year

exophthalmos

protrusion of the eyeball

euthyroid

normal thyroid function

benign

non life threatening

thymoma

benign tumor of the thymus

HbA1c test

determines amount of glucose in the blood

coma

deep unconsciousness

polydipsia

excessive thirst

thyroxine

T 4

hyperparathyroidism

excess release of parathyroid hormone

P.O.

by mouth

normal value of HbA1c

less then 6%

DHEA stands for

dehydroepiandrosterone

the only hormone that lowers blood glucose is

insulin

the speed at which the body's chemical functions proceed is called

metabolic rate

a congenital form of thyroid deficiency that severly retards mental and physical growth is

cretinism

tetany is

a painful muscle spasm

another name for epinephrine is

adrenalin

this term can be used to describe the location of the adrenal gland

suprarenal

hypophysis is the term for the

pituitary gland

condition of forward-projecting jaw is called

prognathism

blood glucose less than 70mg

hypoglycemia

excessive eating

polyphagia

chemical formed that indicates diabetes or possible malnutrition

ketone

hormone secreted by pancreas

insulin

endocrine cells that form around blood vessels

islets of langerhans

found on the upper pole of each kidney

adrenal gland

initiates fight or flight response

catecholamine

genetic immunodeficiency disorder

Digeorge syndrome

underproduction of the growth hormone

pituitary dwarfism

the pancreas cells are

alpha, beta and delta

alpha cells secrete

glucagon

glucagon responds to what

a low blood glucose

beta cells secrete this in respone to what

insulin to a high blood glucose

delta cells secrete

somatostatin

somatostatin does what

inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin

list where endocrine cells are

upper GI, kidney, fat and in tissues

cells in upper GI secrete

gastrin and cholecystokinin

gastrin and cholecystokinin do what

contracts the gallbladder

cells in the kidney secrete

erythropoietin

fat cells secrete

leptin

leptin does what

suppresses appetite

cells in tissues secrete what

prostaglandins

prostaglandins do what

dilate blood vessels, relax airways, lower acid secretion and uterine contractions

funtions of the thyroid are

stimulates almost every tissue to produce protein, increase the amount of oxygen that cells use, controls the speed at which the body's chemical functions proceed (metabolic)

adrenal cortex secretes

more than 25 steroid hormones

the 3 groups of corticosteroids are

glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and sex steroids

a specifac glucocorticoids is

hydrocortisone

a specifac mineralocorticoids is

aldosterone

a specifac sex steroid in females

estradiol

a specifac sex steroid in males is, group name and converted to what

DHEA, group is androgens and converted to testosterone

Addison's disease defined is

an idiopathic atrophy of the adrenal cortex by diminished production of 3 groups of steroids

another name for adrenal virilism is

adrenogenital syndrome

what is peyochromocytoma

tumor of the adrenal medulla that over produces catecholamines

explain general adaption syndrome

fight or flight

4 stages of fight or flight

alarm, f or f, exhaustion, return to normal

corticoid is aka

costeroid

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