The New England Colonies
New Hampshire,Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts
Geography: Coastal areas with good natural harbors; inland areas with dense forests; poor rocky soil and short growing season.
Economy: Small farms, lumber mills, fishing, shipbuilding, and trade flourished; cities developed along the coast.
People and Society: Most people organized as congregations lived on farms; in the cities, merchants controlled trade, artisans made goods, unskilled workers and enslaved Africans provided labor.
The Middle Colonies
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
Geography: Fertile soil and long growing season; rivers ran into back country.
Economy: Colonies grew large amounts of rye, oats, barley, potatoes, and wheat as cash crops to sell; cities developed on the coast.
People and Society: Wealthiest people owned large farms and other businesses. Most farmers produced a small surplus. Tenant farmers rented land from large landowners or worked for wages.
The Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Geography: Favorable climate and soil for agriculture; wide rivers made cities unnecessary.
Economy: Tobacco, rice, and indigo grown on large plantations emerged as cash crops.
People and Society: Wealthy elite controlled most of the land. Cash crops required a large amount of labor, which was supplied on large farms by indentured servants and enslaved Africans.
Sugar Act & Currency Act
Sugar Act: Placed taxes on raw sugar, molasses silk, wine, coffee, pimentos, and indigo.
Currency Act: Banned the use of paper monies in the colonies
Stamp Act: Required stamps to be placed on most printed materials, including newspapers, pamphlets, posters, wills,mortgages, deeds,licenses.
Passed because of the Boston Tea Party. The Coercive Acts were four new laws:
1. Shut down Boston's Port until they paid for the tea that was destroyed.
2. Judges, Council Members, and Sheriffs to be appointed instead of elected.
3. Transferred Soldiers to England to protect them from American Juries.
4. Required officials to allow British soldiers into their homes.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Lexington: 8 Americans died and 10 were wounded. Paul Revere was captured.
Concord: 95 Americans killed and 250 British