AP US HISTORY CHAPTER 3

21 terms by jtheuerling

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The Enlightenment

an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. It was an age of optimism, tempered by the realistic recognition of the sad state of the human condition and the need for major reforms. It was less a set of ideas than it was a set of attitudes. At its core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals. Some classifications of this period also include 17th-century philosophy, which is typically known as the Age of Reason.

Jonathan Edwards

(October 5, 1703 - March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans.sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," emphasized the just wrath of God against sin and contrasted it with the provision of God for salvation

George Whitefield

(December 16, 1714 - September 30, 1770), was a preacher in the Church of England and one of the leaders of the Methodist movement.

The Great Awakening

refer to several periods of dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history, generally recognized as beginning in the 1730s. They have also been described as periodic revolutions in U.S. religious thought. The term is also used in some respects to refer to American religious revivalism that the Protestant Reformation inspired during and after the 1500s, as well as to identify general religious trends within distinctly U.S. religious culture.

"Old Lights"

Typically, if a denomination is changing, and some refuse to change, and the denomination splits, those who did not change are referred to as the "Old Lights"

"New Lights"

embraced the revivals that spread through the colonies During the great Awakening

Slave codes

laws each state had defining the status of slaves and the rights of masters; the code gave slave owners near-absolute power over the right of their human property.

The French and Indian War

(1754-1763) was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the kingdoms of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of all of New France east of the Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida. The outcome was one of the most significant developments in the persistent Anglo-French Second Hundred Years' War. To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida, France ceded its control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

Marquis Duquesne

(c. 1700 - 17 September 1778) a French Governor of New France.served from 1752 through 1755, and is best known for his role in the French and Indian War.

The Proclamation of 1763

issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War. The purpose of the proclamation was to establish Britain's vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with Native Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. The Proclamation in essence forbade colonists of the thirteen colonies from settling or buying land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The colonists were angry because many already had land in that area. Additionally, the Proclamation gave the Crown a monopoly in land bought from Native Americans.

Deism

a religious philosophy and movement that derives the existence and nature of God from reason and personal experience.typically reject supernatural events (prophecy, miracles) and tend to assert that God does not intervene with the affairs of human life and the natural laws of the universe.

Huguenots

the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists.

John Locke

(August 29, 1632 - October 28, 1704) was an English philosopher. he is widely regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers and contributors to liberal theory. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. This influence is reflected in the American Declaration of Independence.

Sir Isaac Newton

an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian. His Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is said to be the greatest single work in the history of science. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries and is the basis for modern engineering.

Fort Duquesne

a fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Elmina

a town situated on a south-facing bay on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, lying west of Cape Coast. The first European settlement in West Africa

Salem witch trials

series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex Counties of colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693. Over 150 people were arrested and imprisoned, with even more accused who were not formally pursued by the authorities. The two courts convicted twenty-nine people of the capital felony of witchcraft. Nineteen of the accused, fourteen women and five men, were hanged. One man who refused to enter a plea was crushed to death under heavy stones in an attempt to force him to do so. At least five more of the accused died in prison.

Indentured servants

a laborer under contract of the employer for some period of time, usually four to seven years, in exchange for such things as ship's passage, food, land and accommodations.

Half-Way Covenant

a form of partial church membership created by New England Puritans in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety, and more desire for material wealth. provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members.

Nathaniel Bacon

(c. 1640 - October 26, 1676) was a wealthy figurehead in the Virginia Colony and also the cousin of Governor Berkeley, famous as the instigator of Bacon's Rebellion of 1676, which collapsed when Bacon himself died of dysentery.[1]

Religious pluralism

a synonym for religious tolerance, which is a condition of harmonious co-existence between adherents of different religions or religious denominations.

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