Neuro surgery study questions for the AST exams

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the outermost layer of the meninges is

dura

a shallow groove on the brain is called

sulcus

the cerebral hemispheres are connected by a deep bridge of nerve fibers called

corpus callosum

a deep groove in the brain is called

fissure

the area that usually occurs in the left cerebral hemisphere and coordinates the complex muscular movements associated with speech is

Broca's area

the left hemisphere is usually associated with

analytical thought

the nondominant hemisphere is not usually associated with

analytical thought processes

masses of gray matter located deep within the cerebral hemispheres are called the

basal ganglia

what serves as a relay station for sensory impulses by channeling them to appropriate regions of the cortex for interpretation

thalamus

the structures within the ventricles that produce CSF are

choroid plexuses

the medulla oblongata controls which visceral activity

cardiac, vasomotor, respiratory

most CSF is produced within the

lateral ventricle

the aqueduct of Sylvius (cerebral aqueduct) connects

the third and fourth ventricles

the structure that extends from the level of the foramen magnum to the pons is the

medulla oblongata

what plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating a variety of visceral activities

hypothalamus

the cerebellar hemispheres are joined in the midline by a structure called the

vermis

what is the largest of the cranial nerves and has three branches

trigeminal

what nerve supplies the muscles that act in adjusting the amount of light that enters the eyes

oculomotor

what nerve has autonomic motor fibers that supply the heart and a variety of smooth muscles

vagus

what part of the nervous system functions independently and continuously without conscious effort

autonomic

Leroy-Raney clips are used on

scalp edges

the best way to control bleeding on the cut edges of bone is with

bone wax

a ventricular shunt can be placed distally in the

atrium or the peritoneal cavity

Avitene is a

hemostatic agent

a congenital collection of abnormal vessels of the brain that increase in size with time best describes

arteriovenous malformation

what is the silent killer

high blood pressure

what condition results from an obstruction of the flow of CSF, overproduction of CSF, or improper absorption of CSF

hydrocephalus

what condition results from a failure of the bony structures around the neural tube to close properly during embryonic development

spina bifida

what is a Wilson fram used for

lumbar surgery

scalp bleeding can be reduced by

digital pressure, scalp clips, and local anesthetic with epinephrine

correctly outline the procedure to turn a bone flap

incision, raise muscle flap, perforator, craniotome

what is the best temperature for irrigation used on the brain

body temperature

temporary aneurysm clips can be left in the patient for permanent occlusion of an aneurysm (T or F)

false

the proximal caatheter is a draining tube that is inserted into the peritoneum regarding a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (T or F)

false

what is not a correct approach for a transphenoidal hypophysectomy

through a craniotomy

laminectomies can be achieved with the patient in the supine position
(T or F)

false

for a laminectomy with discectomy the appropriate specimen is

disk

what is the intraoperative purpose of a large bore spinal needle during spinal procedures

proper disk level identification through X-ray

what procedure involves the release of the median nerve from the transverse carpal ligament

carpal tunnel release

a bulky dressing is used postoperatively for carpal tunnel release to

restrict movement of the wrist

the use of a perforator facilitates the making of bur holes in what procedure

craniotomy

T or F - the bone flap is placed after the muscle layer is closed with an absorbable suture

false

what type of suture would most likely be used to close the dura on an adult patient

4-0 Neurolon

the sphenoid bone forms

portions of the roof and walls of the nasal cavity, the floor of the cranium, and walls of the orbits

the motor area of the frontal lobes control

voluntary muscle movements

the ventricles contain

protein, glucose, and lactic acid

what is the laragest structure of the basal ganglia of the brain

corpus striatum

what system is responsible for distinguishing between favorable or unfavorable outside stimuli

limbic

what is the second largest structure of the brain

cerebellum

the midbrain is located between the

diencephalon and pons

the midbrain is located just below the

thalamus

how man bones are in the cervical region

seven

how many nerves are in the cervical region

eight

what are the lateral extensions of the pedicles in the spine called

transverse processes

which artery provides the brain with most of its blood

internal carotid artery

what nerve controls the voluntary muscles of the pharynx, larynx, palate, sternocleidomastoid, and trapezius

accessory

what term describes the organ of smell

olfactory

which malignant tumor of the brain usually cannot be totally excised

gliomas

which tumor is marked by loss of hearing, headache, vertigo, and facial pain

acoustic neuroma

T or F - regarding subdural hematomas - the pressure of blood from arterial bleeding strips the dura away from the skull, causing more bleeding as the tiny veins from the dura to the skull are torn

false

cerebral aneurysms are typically found

at points of bifurcation in the arteries of the circle of Willis

brain hemorrhages are typically the result of

uncontrolled hypertension

what are the most common of the slow growing intracranial neoplasms

meningiomas

what may be necessary to prevent vasospasm during a craniotomy for aneurysm repair

papaverine

what can previous ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement cause

small ventricles

what procedure requires tow Mayo stands to prevent contamination

transphenoidal hypophysectomy

what is an area of platelike thickening in the embryonic epithelial layer that contains ectoderm

placode

what can be subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

autonomic vervous system

what covers the brain and spinal cord

meninges

what is a collection of arteries that give rise to the various branches supplying blood to the brain

circle of Willis

what is normally used to decompress a tumor

CUSA

what connects the CNS to skin and skeletal muscles via the cranial and spinal nerves

somatic nervous system

what is a bony spur

osteophyte

what is the space between bone and dura

epidural

what is a defect of the CNS in which a hernial sac containing a portion of the spinal cord, meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid protrudes through a congenital opening in the vertebral column

myelomeningocele

the skull bones are connected by a thin membrane called a

suture

the pons is located in the

hindbrain

the corpora quadrigemina is located on the dorsal side of the

midbrain

the spinal cord terminates at the

L1 and L2 vertebrae

what nerve controls the lateral movement of the eye

abducens

what nerve innervates the muscles of the tongue

hypoglossal

how many pairs of spinal nerves originate from the cord and are attached at various points along the length of the cord

thirty-one

during a craniotomy procedure, after the skull flap has been created and the brain exposed, what measures must be taken with the electrocautery

the cutting selection on the electrosurgical unit should be turned off

what table is a special overhead table used in place of the mayo stand during a craniotomy procedure

Mayfield

name three fixed position headrests used for craniotomy procedures

Light-Veley, Mayfield, and three pin suspension

name three pieces of equipment used during a craniotomy procedure

CUSA (cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator, cryosurgery, and the microscope

name three agents commonly used for craniotomy procedures

gelfoam, avitene, and hydrogen peroxide

what procedure involves using ultrasonic waves to identify brain abscesses, tumors, and hematomas

echoencephalography

when preparing to assist in a neurorrhaphy, the ST should have all of the following pieces of equiptment ready

microsurgical instruments, a pneumatic tourniquet, and physiological saline

the patient is placed in what position to perform a sympathectomy

sims or supine

during a lumbar laminectomy, the surgeon may replace the Weitlaner retractors with

Beckman-Adson or Taylor

the ligamentum flavum is what color

yellow

to snip off pieces of bulging disk, the surgeon will use a

Takahashi rongeur

when performing an anterior cervical fusion, the scrub should have the following instruments

Cloward bone-grafting instruments, a Hudson brace, and osteotomes

the anterior cervical disk is incised with a

#15 blade

after making the initial skin incision for a craniotomy, the surgeon places which hemostatic scalp clips to maintain hemostasis

Raney

during a craniotomy, a Gigli saw or what is used to cut the skull between bur holes

Hall Neurairtome

when closing a craniotomy, what wire is used to reattach the flap to the skull

#28

what is performed to correct the premature closure of an infant's cranial suture lines

craniectomy

an acoustic neuroma is a lesion on the

eighth cranial nerve

a berry aneurysm is located

at the base of the brain at the circle of Willis

during ventriculoatrial shunting, the proximal end of he shunt is placed in the

ventricle

when performing a lumbar diskoscopy, the surgeon will insert what needle into the sacral canal

17 gauge

when performing an open carpal tunnel release, the fascia is retracted with (3)

tiny Weitlaner retractors, skin hooks, and sharp Senn retractors

to repair a myelomeningocele, the patinet is placed in what position

prone

a patient undergoing an ulnar nerve transposition can expect the dressing to be

a splint or cast

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