Problems facing the British following the French and Indian War
governing new lands (defense, financial support); political instability (George III=obstinate; no political parties, aristocratic); Indians (Ohio R. Valley, Indians attempted to restart warfare)
Grenville's financial plan to revive Britain's economy
Paying for American defense, taxes to fix British problems of debt. Issued the Sugar Act, Currency Act, Stamp Act and Quartering Act.
Stamp Act Crisis of 1765
early mass actions (burning of effigies); The Stamp Act Congress; Use of Nonimportation; Repeal of the Stamp Act and Instigation of the Declaratory Act
Reasons for backcountry discontent
lack of frontier protection
Green Mountain Boys
led by Ethan Allen, created Vermont (minutemen)
upset by lack of frontier protection; massacred peaceful NA tribe; marched on Philadelphia; Ben Franklin talked them out of it and promised them frontier protection
Significance of discontent in the Carolinas
portrayed difference of opinion within colonies, convinced British that the colonists are unstable
Reaction to the Townshend Acts in 1767
Dickinson's Letters, Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty, Virginia Resolves, Boston Massacre, Repeal of the Townshend Acts.
colonists who rebelled against British control and supported the American Revolution
colonists who were loyal to Great Britain
Colonists boycotted British goods so they didn't have to pay the taxes and to pressure British merchants
Committees of correspondence - purpose?
Founded by Sam Adams. Statement of rights and grievances, invited other colonies. Significance: connected the colonies, mobilized public opinion, kept colonial resentment going.
Contract theory of government
by John Locke during the Enlightenment. Governments derived "their just Powers from the consent of the people," who were entitled to "alter or abolish" those that denied their "unalienable rights" to "life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness." (power from the people). used for the Declaration of Independence & the Constitution
led by George Washington, formed at 2nd Continental Congress
Royal Proclamation of 1763
1. settlers can't cross imaginary line across the Appalachians;
2. governers can't authorize surveys or issue land grants in these areas;
3. established Quebec, East & West Florida
reduced the price of the Molasses Act (1/2); taxed importation of foreign goods
revenue stamps must be purchased and placed on any printed or legal documents
VA Resolves, 1765 & 1769
most eloquently stated petition to the king, written by members of the Virginia Assembly (which was closed)
Declaration of the Rights and Grievances of the Colonies, 1765
issued by the Stamp Act Congress to the king
Declaratory Act, 1766
Parliament has full power to make laws; distinguished between internal and external taxes; reduced Molasses tax but kept Sugar Act
Townshend Acts, 1767 - know components & resulting complications (all repealed but tea tax, 1770*)
Townshend replaced the previous financial minister in GB; Tax on good coming into the colonies (external taxes)--excise tax; Set up the board of customs in Boston; Maritime courts set up in Halifax, Boston, Philadelphia, Charleston >> vice admiralty courts
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Dickinson. Reaction to the Townshend Acts; no right to institute taxes on people who don't benefit from them
Tea Act, 1773
lightened tax on the colonies after the Massacre except for the tea tax, but a lesser tax.
Coercive Acts, 1774
"Intolerable Acts"; quartering act, transfer trials to England; Massachusetts government officials are appointed; closed Boston Harbor
Quebec Act, 1774
Canadian government is appointed, protected papists, granted Quebec with Western lands already claimed by the colonies
Suffolk Resolves, 1774
how the colonists feel about taxation, acts of Parliament to win over colonies are invalid, Massachusetts should arm for defense, economically penalized the British through boycotting (non-importation agreement)
Olive Branch Petition, 1775
John Dickinson; rejected independence but confirmed the colonists' purpose to fight for their rights.
Declaration of Independence, July 4 1776
Public explanation of the reasons for colonial discontent and rationale for independence;
drafted by Jefferson but modifications improved it and made it more powerful;
democracy, rights to "life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness," "Free Independent States"
Lord Grenville, 1st Lord of the Treasury
kept large army in America to avoid rapid demobilization; believed American should share the cost of their own defense.
Patrick Henry of VA
delegate in the VA assembly, "no taxation without representation"
John Dickinson of PA
hoped to resolve the dispute of the Townshend Acts, wrote "Letters"
John & Sam Adams of MA & Sons of Liberty
believed Parliament has no right to legislate for the colonies.
Sons of Liberty: wrote newspaper articles/letters, organized protests
General Thomas Gage
governor of Massachusetts, commander of British forces in the colonies (Coercive Acts)
captured Ft. Ticonderoga, led American army to Quebec-->smallpox
General George Washington
appointed at 2nd Continental Congress, took charge of forces after Bunker Hill.
Stamp Act Congress, 1765
unify protests, delegates from colonies, wroteDeclaration of the Rights and Grievances
Boston Massacre, 1770
riot, someone fired, many were killed and wounded; created resentment for GB; gave colonists courage
Boston Tea Party, 1773
Patriots throw tea into Boston Harbor.
Reaction: merchants think it's an "unnecessary destruction of property", British lose patience and believe the empire is at stake. Rebels are inspired to continue efforts. Results in the Coercive acts to punish and isolate Boston.
First & Second Continental Congresses (1774-1776)
First Congress: September 1774.
All colonies represented except Georgia; endorse Suffolk Resolves; adopt Continental Association
British reactions: Massachusetts declared in rebellion, New England colonies can only trade with Great Britain, Conciliatory Resolution.
Second Congress: May 1775.
Revolutionary Government; George Washington: general commander in chief of continental army
Battles of Lexington & Concord, April 1775
seize Adams and Hancock at Lexington and destroy supplies at Concord.
Adams was warned by Paul Revere.
Battle of Bunker Hill, June 1775
first major fight of colonial rebels vs. British troops. British won but with high number of British casualties. Americans ran out of ammunition.
July 2, 1776
The Second Continental Congress resolved Independence.
July 4, 1776
Howe, Burgoyne, Cornwallis, Gage
George Washington, Benedict Arnold, Gates (defeats Burgoyne at Saratoga)
Currency Act of 1764
Grenville. Prohibited printing money (because of shortage of hard currency)
Quartering Act of 1765
Grenville. colonists must provide necessities (food and shelter) for British troops.
Declaration of the Rights and Grievances
petitioned king for relief and parliament for repeal of the Stamp Act