Kings or Queens who held all of the power within their states' boundaries. Their goal is to control every aspect of society.
ex. Phillip I
Austria Under Charles VI
Austria had Czech, Hungarians, Italians, Croatians, and Germans. He wore the Austrian, Hungarian, and Bohemian crowns. He was a Hapsburg ruler, and said that Austria was hard to rule. He passed on his throne to his daughter Maria Theresa.
Brandenburg - Prussia
Ruled by Hohenzollerns. Landowning nobility - Junkers (resisted kings power). Very aggressive. Brandenburg and Prussia are German states. Fredrick William was the ruler and later known as the great elector.
Richelieu's successor. Greatest triumph: Ending the Thirty Years War. People (Nobles): Hated Mazarin - he increased taxes and strengthens central governments. Had control while Louis XIV was a boy.
The strong minister that Louis XIII appointed to make up for his weakness. Tried to lead with moral principles, ambitious, enjoyed exercising authority. Moved against Huguenots. Forbade Protestant cities to have walls. Weakened noble's power. Increased power of government agents. Involved France in the 30 Year's war
Causes of English Civil War
Long Term - conflict between king and parliament over religion, taxes, and role of king. Conflict between church of England and Puritans. Short Term - Royal Claim to divine right of kings. Charles' disregard for petition of Right, need for money to fight Scots, and attempt to arrest leaders to House of Commons.
Includes Germany, Austria, Bavaria, Bohemia, Moravia, Salsburg, Triol, Switzerland,Netherlands. 30 year's war went on here.
Charles I reign
offended puritans, ruled Scotland and england, war with Spain and France, sighed petition of right, dissolved parliament many times,imposed heavy taxes, English civil war, first king to have a public execution.
Charles II reign
signed Habeas corpus, rule called restoration, passed guarantee of freedom, no heir, catholic.
Church of England
Protestant - Anglican.
Conflict between Charles I & Parliament
Needed money, when parliament would not grant money dissolved parliament. Ignored Petition of rights. offended puritans.
Conflict between James I & Parliament
Appointed Catholics to hight office, when parliament protested it he dissolved parliament, second wife (catholic) gave birth to catholic son (this is causing line of catholic kings), offended catholics by showing catholicism, violated English law.
Consequences of English Civil War
Immediate Effects: Victory of Parliamentary forces, execution of Charles I, established commonwealth, restoration of Stuarts. Long term effects: Forming of political parties, glorious revolution, Bill of Rights' limited royal power, constitutional monarchy, Locke's theory of natural rights.
established commonwealth, abolished monarchy and house of lords, sent home remaining members of parliament, drafted constitution (later tore up), put down rebellion, sought to reform society. Reforms: promoted Puritan morality and abolished activities they found sinful such as theater, sporting events and dancing. (no fun for English people) promoted religious tolerance (for every Christian except for catholics) Jews were allowed to return to england.
Cromwell's rise to power
He held king Charles I captive. Put him on trial and found guilty. King Charles was executed (by the method of beheading). Military general. Parliament voted Cromwell leader/ king.
The idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on earth.
Edict of Nantes
Declaration by Henry of Navarre saying that Huguenots could live in peace in France. They could now also set up their own houses of worship in some cities. Basically a declaration of religious toleration.
English Bill of Rights
clear limits of royal power, made in 1689.Listed many things that a ruler cannot do such as: No suspending of Parliament's laws, no levying of taxes without a specific grant from Parliament, no interfering with freedom of speech in parliament, no penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances.
Fall of Spanish Empire
sever inflation (decline in value of money - Spain getting too much silver,when expelled Jews and moors - lost artists and businessmen, nobles did not pay tax)
Hohenzollern leader. Inherited the title of elector of Brandenburg. Known as great elector. Had strong army. Moved toward absolute monarchy. Best standing army in Europe. Introduced permanent taxation. Called themselves kings. Weakened representative assemblies of their territories. Bought Junkers cooperation. Gave them exclusive right to be officers in his army. Became rigidly controlled in highly militarized society. Worried son was not military enough to rule.
When 7 members of parliament came to Willam and Mary (James II's daughter) came a plead for them to overthrow James. William agreed a led his army into London, James fled to France. Bloodless overthrow.
meaning: to have the body. Gave every prisoner the right to obtain a writ or a document ordering that the prisoner be brought infront of a judge to specify the charges against the prisoner. The judge would decide whether the prisoner should be tried or set free. A monarch could not simply put someone in jail for opposing ruler and prisoners could not be held indefinitely without trials.
The family that ruled Prussia. Fredrick William and Fredrick the great were a part of this family.
Holy Roman Empire
All the German States.
James II overthrown
By daughter Mary and husband William the Orange (prince of Netherlands) Both were Protestant. When 7 members of parliament came to willam and mary (James II's daughter) came a pled for them to overthrow James. William agreed a led his army into London, James fled to France. Bloodless overthrow.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Louis XIV's minister in finance. Colbert believed in theory of mercantilism. Tried to make France self sufficient. Gave gov funds and tax benefits to French companies. Place high tariff on goods from other countries. Recognized importance of colonies and encouraged people to migrate to France's colony in Canada. Fur trade added to French wealth.
philosopher - positive view of human nature. Believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. Could govern own affairs. Criticized absolute monarchy and favored idea of self government. All people are born equal. Government has to prottect rights. Governments power comes from people. Consent of people is foundation fo modern democracy. Americans based ideas on John locke
Peter the Great
Great Reformer, wanted Russia and west to combine, (Russian Czar), fascinated by westerners modern tools and machines, had passion for ships and sea, he believed that Russia needed warm water port, first Czar to travel to west.
Petition of Right
petition: Would not imprison subjects without due cause, would not levy taxes without Parliament's consent, would not house soldiers in private homes, would not impose martial law in peacetime. Charles I agreed to petition and signed but Charles ignored it. Set idea that law is higher than king.
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.
the re-establishment of the British monarchy in 1660, the rule of Charles II.
After Ivan the Terrible died someone had to take over( he had no heir) Michael Romanov (gradnephew to Anastasia) was elected king.
Russia (17th Century)
Started building St. Petersburg and it became one of the greatest trading cities.Russia knew little about western europe. Was cut off from Renaissance and Age of Exploration. Eastern orthodox and viewed everyone else as heratics. Russia had serfs still.
Treaty of Utrechet
After the War of the Spanish Succession, signed in Utrecht, Netherlands. Stated that Louis's grandson was allowed to remain king of Spain so long as the thrones of France and Spain were not united.
Treaty of Westphalia
After 30 years war. Consequences: weakened Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria, strengthened France by awarding it German territory, made German princes independent of the holy Roman emperor, ended religious war siin Europe, intorduced a new method of peace negotiation whereby all participants meet to settle the problems of a war and decide the terms of peace. This method is still used today
United Provinces of the Netherlands
Dutch fought for years to gain independence. 1579 7 northern provinces of the Netherlands which were largely Protestant united and declared independence from spain. Pecame United Provices of the Nether lands. Then southern provinces were catholic and remained under spainish control. Different: practiced religious toleration, not a kingdom - was a republic, elected governer (power depended on support of merchants and land holders. Great Art. Lot of trading (Dutch east india company) Dutch replace Italians as bankers of Europe,larges fleet in world, lot of grain.
War of the Austrian Succession
Charles VI had no male heir. Spent entier reign pondering. Wanted daughter Maria Theresa to take throne. Persuaded other leaders of Europe to sign an agreement that declared that they would recognise Charles's eldest daughter to hapsburg throne. King of Prussia wanted Austrian land of Silesia. Silesia produced iron ore, textiles, and food products. Sent arm to occupy Silesia. Maria Theresa (just recently gave birth) journed to hungary to ask nobles for aid. Pledged to give Maria Therisa army. Great Britian also joined Austira to fight Prussias ally France. Did not save Silesa (lost in treaty in treaty of Aix - la - Chapelle) but did stop Prussia's agression.
War of the Spanish Succession
Spanish King Charles II, died. Promised throne to Louis XIV's 16 yr. old grandson, Philip of Anjou. 2 greatest power in Europe (enemies) were now both ruled by French Bourbons. Other countries felt threatened by increas in power. England, Austira, Dutch Republic, Italian states joint together to prevent union of the Spanish and French thrones. Treaty of Utrechet ended war.