A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other. (p. 757)
Germany's military plan, propose By Gen. Schlieffen, at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire joined together to fight the Allies in World War I.
in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
a struggle in which competing nations build more and more weapons in an effort to avoid one nation gaining a clear advantage
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo by a young Serbian man, started World War I.
A list of demands in which one party threatens harmful action to another party if the other party rejects its proposals
turkish troops killed tens of thousands of armenians (1890s), armenians supported enemies of the turks in WWI, 2 million armenians are deported, 600,000 are killed by turkish troops or starved to death.
a region in southeastern Europe where crisis struck in the 1800s because each group within the region wanted their own independence; Greece, serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Hungary, Herzegovina, Albania and Romania
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule. Delivers "blood and iron" speech.
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army always ready for war.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
a person killed, captured, injured or missing in action in a war.
introduced by the Germans and was used by both sides during world war 1; caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation
an enclosed armored military vehicle
unrestricted submarine warfare
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
England and France's attempt to take over the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) by the way of Dardanelles Strait.
Restricting the amount of food and other goods people may buy during wartime to assure adequate supplies for the military
one-sided information designed to persuade, to keep up morale and support for the war.
an agreement to stop fighting
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
In the Treaty of Versailles, Germany's colonies were govern away to British, French, and Japanese delegates. Germany's army could not exceed 100,000 men and they could build no military fortifications in the Rhineland. They also had to pay for all civilian damages caused by the war. (919-21)
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
allowing people to determine their own fate by choosing their own form of government
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.
David Llyod George
Prime minister of Great Britain, had won a decisive victory in elections in December of 1918. His platform was simple: make the Germans pay for this dreadful war.
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.