CLS 109 Week 1

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81 terms

Binocular

pertaining to the use of both eyes; possessing two eyepieces as with a microscope

Compensate

to make amends; be equivalent to.

Condenser

part of a microscope sub-stage that regulates the amount of light directed on a specimen.

High-power field (HPF)

refers to micro-scope lens. usually 40x magnification

Low-power field (LPF)

refers to micro-scope lens. usually 10x magnification

Magnify

to make something look larger than it really is.

Minute

a measurement of time equal to 60 seconds; very small, tiny.

Monocular

possessing a single eyepiece, as with a microscope.

Objectives

on a microscope- a lens or series of lenses.

Proficient

well advanced in an art, occupation, skill or branch of knowledge; unusually knowledgeable.

Quality control specimen

...

Technical

relating to some particular art, science, or trade; also , requiring special skill or technique.

Waiver

to give up; forgo; waiving of a right or claim

What is the first step completed when utilizing a microscope?

Wash hands and put on latex or vinyl gloves

After plugging the microscope light source into electrical outlet, the next step is ?

place the specimen slide on the stage with the frosted end up between the clips and secure it over the opening of the stage.

When the outline of the specimen is in view, what specific dial is utilized until the specimen can be seen in detail?

Turn the fine- adjustment dial until the specimen can be seen in detail.

When would the immediate-power objective be utilized when viewing a specimen?

.

When using oil-immersion lens objective or HPF, should oil be used sparingly or copiously to aid in further specimen identification?

When using the oil-immersion lens objective of hpf, oil should be used very sparingly

What is the last procedure step when working with the microscope?

Remove gloves and wash hands

Labeling parts of a microscope

1.Occular Lens(eyepiece) 2.Body Tube 3. Arm 4. Course Adjustment knob 5. Fine Adjustment knob 6. Base 7. Head 8. Objectives 9. Stage Clips 10. Stage 11. Diaphragm 12. Light Source.

What equipment would be needed to be set up when using a microscope?

Microscope, electrical outlet, specimen on disposable glass slide with frosted end, cover glass (used usually for wet specimens only) lens cleaning tissues, latex or vinyl gloves

What specific OSHA guidelines apply when working with bodily-fluid or specimen?

personal protective equipment (PPE)

Why is a first morning voided urine sample the "desired " specimen?

It is the most concentrated

What is the name of the pigment in urine that dictates its color?

Urochrome

A "fruity" smelling urine sample, which contains ketones, may indicate what metabolic disease?

Diabetes mellitus

What kind of microscopes have a "two-lens" magnification system?

Binocular

Red in Urine

RBCs, Hemoglobin, Myoglobin

Wine-Red Urine

Porphyrins

Brown-Black

Melanin, Homogentistic Acid, Hemoglobin

Yellow-Brown, Green-Brown

Bilirubin, Bile Pigments

Hazy Urine

Mucus, Talcum powder, Squamous Epithelial Cells

Cloudy Urine

Calcium Oxalate, Urci Acid Crystals, Amorphous Urates

Cloudy-Red

RBCs

Turbid or Cloudy

WBCs, Bacteria, Yeast, Renal Epithelial Cells, Lipids

Microbiology

Branch of Medicine dealing with microbes/microorganisms

Bacteriology

Study of Bacteria

Cocci

Spherical Bacteria

Diplococci

Pairs of Cocci

Bacilli

Rod shaped bacteria

Aerobic

Bacteria that requires Oxygen

Anaerobic

Bacteria that does not require Oxygen

Staphylococci

Grape-like clusters

Spirochete

Spiral shaped bacteria

Mycobacterium

Group of bacteria that cannot be identified by the visual gram stain technique

Bacteria

Single celled organisms that reproduce dividing from one cell into two

Culturette

Sterile transport system

Stains

applied to better visualize and help identify bacteria

Purpose of Urinalysis

To detect Metabolic abnormalities, disease, infection or damage to kidneys

Homeostasis

The human body strives to maintain a state of equilibrium of the internal enviroment, which is called...

First Morning Void

Which is often the most desired urine specimen

One hour

When should the 24 hour specimen be tested?

Physical, Chemical, microscopic

What are the three routine parts of a Urinalysis

Urochrome

Pigment that makes the color of Urine

Clear and Transparent

What is the normal clarity of Urine

Due to keytones, indicates DM

if Urine smells friuty what does that mean?

UTI

If urine smells foul what does that mean?

PKU

If urine smell mousy or musty, what does that mean?

1.005-1.030

What is the normal range for specific gravity

Refractometer, Urinometer, Reagent Strips

Three methods of meauring specific gravity

Qualitative

Provides an approximate indication whether or not a substance is present or in abnormal amounts

pH

acidity or alkalinity of urine

4.5-8.0 Average 6.0

What is the range of pH for freshly voided urine and the average

Clinitest

Addtional test for glucose

Icotest

Additional test for Bilirubin

Acetest

Additional test for Ketones

EIA

Enzyme ImmunoAssay; qualitative test (urine); color reaction

Serum testing

Gives quantitative results

1.010

For pregnancy testing, the specific gravity must be what?

10-15 mL

when doing a microscopic exam how much urine do you put on the slide?

3-5 min

when doing a microscopic exam on urine how long do yu centrifuge?

Supernatant, Sediment

when doing a microscopic exam on urine, it will seperate into what two layers?

Supernatant

Portion of Urine that will be discarded

Sediment

the solids remaining in urine after being centrifuged

Frame

Arm and base of microscope

Stage

flat platform that hold the slide

Mechanical stage control knobs

used to move slide on various directions

Condenser

the lens systsem between the stage and light source, which collects the lights rays and projects them toward the slide

Iris diaphram

Provides additional light control

Culture media

where bacteria is grown on a culturette

MDR

Multi drug resistant

HCG

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: hormone produced in pregnancy soon after conception

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