What is the general term for a large network of blood vessels?
What is the term for the connecting channels between blood vessels?
What type of vessel arises from the heart and carries blood away from it? What is its branching system?
What type of vessel carries blood to the heart? What is its branching system?
What portion of the vascular system is a blood-filled space between two layers of tissue?
What major artery arises from the common carotid and subclavian arteries on the left side of the body?
What is the direct branch from the aorta (on the right side of the body), which then branches into the common carotid and subclavian?
What artery arises directly from the aorta (on the left side of the body) and travels up the neck, lateral to the trachea and larynx?
common carotid artery
Which artery arises directly from the aorta (on the left side of the body) and has the upper arm as its main destination?
What are the two major arteries that supply the head and neck?
common carotid subclavian
Where is the most reliable pulse during emergency treatment?
Which artery supplies intracranial structures and is also the source of the ophthalmic artery?
internal carotid artery
What does the ophthalmic artery supply?
eye orbit *lacrimal gland
Which artery supplies extracranial tissues of the head and neck including the oral cavity?
external carotid artery
What are the major branches of the external carotid artery and how can they be grouped?
anterior medial posterior terminal *grouped according to their location to the main artery
Which artery directly supplies tissues to the hyoid bone, infrahyoid muscles, sternocleidomastoid muscle, muscles of larynx, and thyroid gland?
superior thyroid artery
Which artery directly supplies tissues superior to the hyoid bone including the suprahyoid muscles, floor of mouth, and tongue?
Which artery directly supplies mylohyoid muscle, the sublingual salivary gland, mucous membranes of the floor of mouth, and suprahyoid muscles?
Outline the pathway of the facial artery.
runs medial to the mandible over the submandibular salivary gland around the mandible's inferior border to lateral side runs anteriorly superiorly near the angle of the mouth along side of nose terminates at medial canthus of eye
List major branches of the facial artery.
ascending palatine glandular branches submental inferior labial superior labial angular arteries
Which artery directly supplies the soft palate, palatine muscles, and palatine tonsils?
ascending palatine artery
Which specific artery can be a source of serious hemorrhage if it is injured during a tonsillectomy?
ascending palatine artery
Which artery directly supplies the submandibular lymph nodes, submandibular salivary gland, and mylohyoid and digastric muscles?
Which artery supplies the lower lip tissues and facial expression muscles?
inferior labial artery
Which artery supplies the upper lip tissues and facial expression muscles?
inferior labial artery
Which artery supplies tissues along the side of the nose (and is the termination of the facial artery)?
Which artery directly supplies pharyngeal walls, soft palate, and meninges of the brain?
*ascending pharyngeal artery (pharyngeal branch & meningeal branches)
Which artery directly supplies suprahyoid muscles, sternocleidomastoid muscles, and scalp and meningeal tissues in the occipital region?
Which arteries directly supply the internal ear and the mastoid ear cells?
*posterior auricular artery (auricular brand & stylomastoid artery)
Which artery arises within the parotid salivary gland and can be visible in patients under the skin of their face (on the lateral portion of their forehead area)?
superficial temporal artery
Which artery directly supplies the parotid salivary gland and the nearby tissues?
transverse facial artery
Which artery directly supplies the temporalis muscle?
transverse facial artery
Which artery directly supplies portions of the scalp in the frontal and parietal regions?
Outline the pathway of the maxillary artery.
begins at neck of man. Condyle w/in parotid salaviary gland runs between the man. & sphenomandibular lig. through infratemporal fossa either superficial or deep to lat pterygoid muscle *enters pterygopalatine fossa
List the major branches of the maxillary artery within the infratemporal fossa.
middle menigeal inferior alveolar arteries deep temporal(s) pterygoid(s) masseteric buccal posterior superior alveolar infraorbital (orbital & ant. sup. Alveolar) greater palatine (lesser palatine) sphenopalatine (lat nasal, septal &nasopalatine)
Which artery directly supplies the meninges of the brain located on the inferior surface of the skull, as well as the skull bones?
middle meningeal artery
Which artery directly supplies the floor of the mouth and mylohyoid muscle?
Which artery directly supplies tissues of the chin and with what does it anastomose?
Which artery directly supplies pulp tissue, gingiva, and periodontium of mandibular anterior teeth?
Which artery directly supplies the anterior and posterior portions of the temporalis muscle?
deep temporal arteries
Which artery directly supplies the masseter muscle?
Which artery directly supplies the lateral and medial pterygoid muscles?
Which artery directly supplies the buccinator muscle and soft tissues of the cheek?
Which artery directly supplies pulp tissue, periodontium, and gingiva of posterior maxillary teeth and the maxillary sinus?
posterior superior alveolar artery (dental & alveolar branches)
Which artery directly supplies the orbital region, face, and anterior maxillary teeth?
Which artery directly supplies the pulp tissue, periodontium, and gingiva of anterior maxillary teeth?
anterior superior alveolar artery (dental & alveolar branches)
Which arteries directly supply both the hard and soft palates?
descending palatine artery (greater & lesser palatine artery)
Which artery directly supplies the nasal cavity?
Compare veins with arteries.
veins-carries blood to heart, start small get bigger / artery carries blood away from heart, start big get smaller *in head & neck veins more variable than arteries & larger & more numerous in same tissue area
Which vein begins at the medial corner of the eye and drains into the internal jugular vein?
Which vein directly drains the tissues of the orbit?
Which vein directly drains the upper lip?
superior labial vein
Which vein directly drains the lower lip?
inferior labial vein
Which vein directly drains the tissues of the chin and submandibular region?
Which vein directly drains the dorsal and ventral side of the tongue and floor of the mouth?
How is the retromandibular vein created and what will it form?
formed by the merger of the superficial temporal vein and maxillary vein external jugular vein
Which vein directly drains the lateral scalp?
posterior auricular vein
What is the location of the pterygoid plexus of veins?
around pterygoid muscles & surrounding the maxillary artery on each side of the face in the infratemporal fossa
With what veins does the pterygoid plexus of veins anastomose?
both facial & retromandibular veins
In general, which veins does the pterygoid plexus of veins drain?
the veins from the deep portions of the face
What is the function of the pterygoid plexus of veins?
protects the maxillary artery from being compressed during mastication
Where does the pterygoid plexus of veins drain?
into the maxillary vein
Which veins drain blood from the deep portions of the face?
Which vein drains blood from the meninges of the brain?
middle meningeal vein
Which vein drains the pulp tissues of the maxillary teeth and the periodontium of the maxillary teeth including the gingiva?
posterior superior alveolar vein (dental & alveolar branches)
Which vein drains the pulp tissues of the mandibular teeth and periodontium including the gingiva?
inferior alveolar vein (dental & alveolar branches)
Where are the venous sinuses located?
in the meninges
Where is the cavernous venous sinus located?
on each side of the body of the sphenoid bone
With what does the cavernous venous sinus communicate?
with the one on the opposite side & also with the pteryoid plexus of veins & superior ophthalmic vein, which anastomoses with the facial vein
Which major vein drains most of the head and neck tissues?
internal jugular vein
What structures are contained in the carotid sheath?
internal jugular vein common carotid artery & it's branches *vegus nerve
Which vein is the only vein in the head and neck to have valves near its entry of the subclavian vein?
external jugular vein
Which vein begins inferior to the chin and drains into the external jugular vein?
anterior jugular vein
Which vein is formed when the internal jugular vein merges with the subclavian vein?
What do the brachiocephalic veins unite to form?
superior vena cava
Which complications can come about as a result of blood vessel lesions?
stroke (CVA) heart attach (MI) tissue destruction (gangrene) infection (i.e. in the cavernous venous sinus)
What is a clot that forms on the inner vessel wall?
What term is used when a clot dislodges from the inner vessel wall and travels as a foreign material in the blood?
What is the term to describe when a large amount of blood escapes the tissue without clotting?
What is the term used to describe when a blood vessel is injured, a small amount of the blood escapes into the surrounding tissues, and a clot forms?
What are the clinical signs of a hematoma?
tissue tenderness swelling *discolaration
During what dental injections is the risk of hematoma higher? How is this prevented?
incorrectly administered posterior superior alveolar block near the pterygoid plexus of veins prevented by knowing the location of larger blood vessels