Paddy fields, Bacterial decomposition, cattle, one of the greenhouse gases
Always present - water cycle, traps heat, one of the greenhouse gases
Respiration, combustion of fossil fuels, burning of rainforests and plant life
Combustion of hydrocarbons, over-use of artificial fertilizers
Have an opposite effect to greenhouse gases, lowers temperatures by reflecting sunlight, include soot & volcanic ash
Particulates (& volatile organic compounds)
Soot, dust, forest fires, volcanoes, burning coal and diesel
Volcanoes, coal industry ->inflammation of respiratory tract
Forest fires, factories, lightning, power plants, car exhausts -> leads to respiratory irritation
Forest fires, car exhausts, incomplete combustion of fossil fuels -> suffocation
Living & decaying plants, partially burnt fuels -> carcinogenic with prolonged exposure
(Formation of) nitrogen oxides (NOx)
N₂ + O₂ -> 2NO
2NO + O₂ -> 2NO₂
(Formation of) sulfur oxides
S + O₂ -> SO₂
2S + O₂ -> 2SO₃
Chemicals that is released into the environment and has a direct effect on health or the environment
Usually made from primary pollutants and have their own secondary effects
Devices attached to a vehicle's exhaust system to convert carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides into water and carbon dioxide
Thermal exhaust reactor
Unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide is reacted with excess oxygen and converted to carbon dioxide.
Lean Burn Engine
A higher ratio of oxygen is mixed with the hydrocarbon petrol so that carbon dioxide is produced instead
Alkaline scrubbing (Scrubbers)
Pollutant-laden air is passed through a mixture of water and lime (CaO), trapping particulates and sulfur oxide gases.
Limestone-based fluidised beds
Burning coal on a bed of limestone to remove sulfur
Larger particles in smoke are caught in the sedimentation chamber
Smaller particles are charged and attracted to an oppositely charged electrode in a precipitation chamber
Process by which acidic particles, gases and precipitation leave the atmosphere.
Acid rain, fog, snow
Acidic particles, particles
biological oxygen demand
Measure of how much dissolved oxygen the organic matter in a river uses
biological oxygen demand (BOD)
the amount of oxygen a pollutant needs over a period of 5 days
unwanted enrichment of nitrates, phosphates and sulfates in lakes and rivers
vital for all aquatic ecosystems
main water pollutants
Heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, nitrates
reverse osmosis, ion exchange, flash distillation
Drinking water treatment
chlorination, ozone treatment
Formed when waste material containing organic chlorine compounds aren't incinerated at high enough temperatures -> persistent and toxic
insecticides, DDT, herbicides, fungicides
Mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc
Blue bay syndrome, carcinogenic water pollutant
Water pollutant found in transformers and capacitors
Kills bacteria and viruses in water, expensive
Kills bacteria and other non viral microbes, cheap, residual effect, carcinogenics
Breaks bonds in DNA molecules in the genes in skin, leading to the growth of cancerous cells
Natural chemical to prevent UV damage
Methane, water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, chlorofluorocarbons
Naturally acidic (pH5.65) due to CO₂ in the atmosphere. Becomes acidic as CO₂ will become carbonic acid when dissolved.
Precipitation under pH 5.6. Will cause massive environmental impact due to the acidic nature.
Stone (and Buildings)
Rain will react with this and erode it if it contains calcium carbonate like limestone or marble and become soluble salts, water and carbon dioxide.
Fish and other aquatic life are very sensitive to the ______ of water.
______ can be affected by the acidity in the soil and may not grow properly due to it being too acidic.
________ may be affected by the acidity and cause lung problems and irritation of the throat. Another way it may be affected is by the acidic nature reacting with the metal in the pipes leading to an increase in metal ions in the water causing diseases such as Alzheimer.
In acid deposition, _______ neutralizes acids that are formed in the atmosphere.
Nitrification and Acidification
In the atmosphere, slightly acidic ammonium salts are formed and would either sink to the ground or washed out of the atmosphere by rain. When the slightly acidic ammonium salts enter the soil, _______ and _______ can occur.
NH₄⁺ + 2O₂ → 2H⁺ + NO³⁻ + H₂O