A&P II CH-17

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Functions of the Heart

Cardiac output

Stroke volume times heart rate

Systole

phase of the cardiac cycle that refers to myocardial contraction

Diastole

phase of the cardiac cycle that refers to myocardial relaxiation

Startling's law of the heart

change in myocardial contraction that is due to stretching of the heart muscle

inotropic effect

change in myocardial contraction that is not due to stretching of the heart muscle

stroke volume

amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in one beat

preload

same as end-diastolic volume (EDV)

ejection fraction

percentage of EDV pumped by the ventricle

afterload

arteriolar dilation decreases this

increased heat rate and force of myocardial contraction (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

sympathetic activity

vagal effects (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

parasympathetic activity

activiation of the muscarinic receptors by ACh (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

parasympathetic activity

activation of the beta1 adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

sympathetic activity

release of stress hormones, such as adrenalin by the adrenal medulla (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

sympathetic activity

stimulation of the SA node (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

sympathetic activity

(?) dromotropic effect and heart block (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

parasympathetic activity

(+) inotropic effect, (+) chronotropic effect, and increased cardiac output (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

sympathetic activity

tachycardia and palpitations (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

sympathetic activity

inhibition of the SA node activity and bradycardia (sympathetic activity or parasympathetic activity)

parasympathetic activity

Preload

the amount of blood in the ventrcle at the end of its resting phase

under what condition is end-diastolic volume (EDV) most likely to increase while ejection freaction decreases

heart failure

A change in preload causes a change in myocardial contractile force. This response is known as a

Starling's law of the heart

A drug causes a (+) inotropic effect, a (?) dromotropic effect. What drug response would you expect to observe

Slow heart rate

A patient in heart failure is given a drug that is classified as a beta, adrenergic agonist. The drug

activates the beta1 adrenergic receptors and causes a (+) inotropic effect

which of the following statements is correct about the cardiac output

cardiac output is determined by heart rate and stroke volume

During ventricular diastole

blood fills the ventricles

increased return of blood to the heart stretches the heart muscle, thereby

increasing stroke volume

Ventricular systole refers to

contraction of the ventricular myocardium

which of the following is least related to the vagus nerve

(+) inotropic effect

Which of the following is least characteristic of sympathetic nerve stimulation?

(?) inotropic effect

Which of the following is descriptive of stroke volume?

ml/beat

Mililiters per minute describes

cardiac ouptut

Which of the following is least likely to increase cardiac output?

vagal discharge

Which of the following is least related to tachydysrhythmia?

vagal discharge

Bradycardia is most likely to be caused by

vagal discharge

Atropine, a muscarinic blocker

increases heart rate

Starling's law relates force of myocardial contraction with

preload

Venodialation

decreases preload

Digoxin is a (+) inotropic agent and therefore

increases cardiac output

An elevation in pulmonary artery pressure is most likely to cause

right ventricular hypertrophy

Which of the following is most likely to elicit a (+) inotropic effect, a (+) drinitriouc effect abd a (+) chronotropic effect?

sympathomimetic activity

Which of the following is a consequense of backward failure assoicated with left sided heart failure?

pulmonary edema

Which of the following is most likely to cause an elevation of pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure?

left ventricluar failure

Which of the following is least likely to be used in the treatment of left ventricular failure and pulmonary edema

peripheral vasoconstrictor such as norepinephrine (levophed)

Jugular vein distention is most associated with

right-sided heart failure

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