Microbiological contaminants are best described as
any and all microbes present on or in a substance.
Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include all the following except
Which of the following microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls?
The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores is
The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce microorganisms and debris to safe levels is
The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens is
Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin is
The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the
None of the choices are correct.
Disinfection of beverages such as apple juice, milk, and wine, is optimally achieved by
Which of the following items are typically irradiated in order to kill microbes?
human tissues such as heart valves and skin
Which control method would not be a suitable choice for killing mycobacteria in a capped culture tube?
ultraviolet (germicidal) light
The compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and two phenolic rings, and is used increasingly for wound degerming, neonatal washes, handscrubbing, and prepping surgical skin sites is
All of the choices are correct (denature proteins when in a 50 - 95% alcohol-water solution, disinfect items soaked in alcohol, are skin degerming agents, at 50% or higher concentrations dissolve cell membrane lipids)
All of the following are correct about iodophors except
this formulation allows a quick release of free iodine.
The chemical agent that produces highly reactive hydroxyl-free radicals and also decomposes to O2 gas is
All the following are correct about detergents except
they are active in the presence of organic matter.
Which of the following is being used to replace hypochlorites in treating water because of the possibility of cancer-causing substances being produced?
Which of the following is officially accepted as a sterilant and high-level disinfectant?
All of the following are correct about food irradiation except
no irradiated food can be sold without clear labeling.
Historically, which of the following was instilled into the eyes of newborn infants to prevent gonococcal infections?
All of the following are correct about the autoclave except
It is effective for sterilizing powders, oils, and waxy substances.
Transmission of tineas include
All of the choices are correct (human to human, animal to human, soil to human, fomites to human)
Entamoeba histolytica is acquired by
All of the choices are correct (ingestion of cysts of the pathogen, contaminated food, contaminated water, anal-oral sexual contact)
Which of the following causes serious congenital disease from transplacental transmission?
The symptoms that occur in cyclic 48 to 72 hour episodes in a malaria patient are
chills, fever, and sweating.
Most cases of toxoplasmosis in patients that are not immunocompromised have the following symptoms:
sore throat, low grade fever, and swollen lymph nodes
All of the choices are correct (does not produce cysts, in males causes urethritis, in females causes vaginitis with a foul-smelling discharge, has four flagella and an undulating membrane)
This is a zoonosis, caused by an apicomplexan, that is introduced to humans by the bite of a hard body tick
Outbreaks of this apicomplexan disease have been associated with fecal-contaminated imported raspberries, and also fresh greens and drinking water
Toxoplasmosis includes all the following except
intrauterine infectious are generally mild with very little damage to fetal tissues.
Symptoms of cryptosporidiosis include
headache, sweats, vomiting, severe abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.
Parasitic helminthes have the following characteristics except
have developmental forms that include cysts
All of the choices are correct (is an intestinal roundworm, spreads to humans by ingestion of Ascaris eggs in food, larvae penetrate into lymphatics and capillaries around intestines, larvae migrate to the pharynx, get swallowed and return to intestines to mature)
All of the choices are correct (include Necator americanus, include Ancylostoma duodenale, have filariform larvae in soil that get transmitted into bare feet, have oral cutting plates by which they anchor to the intestines)
Trichinosis includes all the following except
All of the choices are correct (encysted larvae get ingested, associated with undercooked pork or bear meat, migrate from intestines to blood and various body tissues, coiled larvae encyst in skeletal muscle)
All of the choices are correct (a blood fluke, eggs from humans enter water and develop into miracidium, snails allow development into cercaria, cercaria enter hair follicles and pass to the blood and then the liver)
All of the following pertain to tapeworms except
one proglottid segment will have either female or male reproductive organs.
The form lacking a free flagella in the developmental stage of a hemoflagellate is called the
Which of the following is not an effective way to minimize human contact with parasitic helminths?
These are all effective ways.
Which parasite is carried by Cyclops, an arthropod commonly found in still water?
The larval forms of certain Taenia species, which typically infest muscles of mammalian intermediate hosts is also called a
Resident flora of the intestines include
None of the above (Streptococcus, Haemophilus, Staphylococcus)
The chemical found in tears and saliva that hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan in certain bacterial cell walls is
The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
Which of the following is an example of vertical transmission?
a mother transmitting larva of roundworm to her fetus
A laboratory technologist splashed a blood specimen onto his face, eyes, nose, and mouth. This specimen was from an HIV positive patient. If this blood exposure leads to HIV infection in the technologist, the transmission route is
The dried residues of fine droplets from mucus or saliva that harbor and transmit pathogen are
Animals that participate in the life cycles of pathogens and transmit pathogens from host to host are
The ability of a fungus to grow as a yeast or a mold depending on its environmental temperature is called
Characteristics of Histoplasma capsulatum include
it grows in moist soil, rich in nitrogen from bird and bat guano.
All of the following pertain to coccidioidomycosis except
the pathogen grows best in soil with bird and bat guano.
Chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis are
caused by saprobes with dark-pigmented mycelia and spores.
All of the choices are correct (fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails, also called ringworm, also called tineas, often time-consuming to eradicate completely)
All of the choices are correct (intertriginous infection of skin sites, vulvovaginal infection, oral cavity and esophageal infections, skin and nail infections)
Cryptococcus neoformans has the following characteristics except
commonly found in the human mouth, intestines, and genitalia
Cryptococcosis can include
All of the choices are correct (pulmonary infection, septicemia, meningitis, bone infection)
This opportunist is the most frequent cause of life-threatening pneumonia in AIDS patients:
Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci
Aspergillosis includes all the following except
there are no effective drugs to treat the infection.
Serious mycoses treated with amphotericin B include all the following except
Decaying vegetation, such as piles of leaves and compost heaps, allows growth and transmission of
This organism commonly contaminates grains, corn, and peanuts and produces a potent mycotoxin called aflatoxin:
Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci
All of the choices are correct (has protozoan and fungal characteristics, lacks ergosterol in its plasma membrane, is an obligate parasite, causes serious infection in elderly, premature infants, and AIDS patients)
Which of the following is a rare mycosis caused by a mold commonly found in soil, in dairy products and on the human body?
Which of the following are likely to predispose patients to fungal infections?
All of the choices are correct (cancer, AIDS, tuberculosis, malnutrition)