Chapter four

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chromatin

structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins

chromosome

threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a deoxyribonucleic acid molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes

cytoplasm

jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients

DNA

molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides

diaphragm

muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity

metabolism

sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism

organelle

cellular structure that provides a specialized function

pathology

study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences

peristalsis

rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward

cytology

the study of the body at the cellular level

epithelial tissue

covers surfaces of organs, lines cavities, and canals, forms tubes and ducts, provides the secreting portions of glands, and makes up the epidermis of the skin

connective tissue

supports and connects other tissues and organs

muscle tissue

provides the contractile tissue of the body

nervous tissue

transmits electrical impulses as it relays information throughout the entire body

anatomical position

body is erect, eyes are looking forward, upper limbs hang to the sides, with the palms facing forward, lower limbs are parallel, toes pointing straight

midsagittal (median)

right and left

coronal (frontal)

anterior and posterior

transverse

superior and inferior

Dorsal cavity

cranial and spinal

cranial

brain

spinal

spinal cord

spine

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx

cervical

neck

thoracic

chest

lumbar

lion

sacral

lower back

coccyx

tailbone

ventral

thoracic and abdominopelvic

thoracic

heart and lungs

abdominopelvic

digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs

RUQ

right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines

LUQ

left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines

RLQ

part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter

LLQ

part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter

left hypochondriac

upper left region beneath the ribs

epigastric

region above the stomach

right hypochondriac

upper right region beneath the ribs

left lumbar

left middle lateral region

unbilical

region of the navel

right lumbar

right middle lateral region

left inguinal (iliac)

left lower lateral region

hypogastric

lower middle region beneath the navel

right inguinal (iliac)

right lower lateral region

abduction

movement away

adduction

movement towards

medial

pertaining to the midline

lateral

pertaining to a side

superior (cephalad)

toward the head or upper portion

inferior (caudal)

toward the tail

proximal

nearer to the center or point of attachment

distal

away from the center or point of attachment

anterior

front of the body

posterior

back of the body

parietal

pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity

visceral

pertaining to the internal organs

prone

lying face down

supine

lying face up

inversion

turning inward or inside out

eversion

turning outward

palmer

pertaining to the palm of the hand

plantar

pertaining to the sole of the foot

superficial

toward the surface of the body or external

deep

away from the surface of the body or internal

cyt/o

cell

hist/o

tissue

kary/o, nucle/o

nucleus

anter/o

anterior

caud/o

tail

crani/o

cranium

dist/o

far

dors/o

back

infer/o

below

later/o

side

medi/o

middle

poster/o

back

proxim/o

near

ventr/o

belly side

abdomin/o

abdomen

cervic/o

neck

gastr/o

stomach

ili/o

ilium

inguin/o

groin

lumb/o

loins

pelv/i, pelv/o

pelvis

spin/o

spine

thorac/o

chest

umbilic/o

umbilicus, navel

albin/o, leuk/o

white

chlor/o

green

chrom/o

color

cirrh/o, jaund/o, xanth/o

yelllow

cyan/o

blue

erythr/o

red

melan/o

black

poli/o

gray

acr/o

extremity

eti/o

cause

idi/o

unknown, peculiar

morph/o

form

path/o

disease

radi/o

radiation

somat/o

body

son/o

sound

viscer/o

internal organs

-genesis

forming, origin

-gnosis

knowing

-gram

record, writing

-graph

instrument for recording

-graphy

process of recording

-logist

specialist

-logy

study of

-meter

instrument for measurement

-metry

act of measuring

-pathy

disease

ad-

toward

hetero-

different

homeo-

same

infra-

below

peri-

around

super-

above

trans-

through

ultra-

beyond

signs

indicators

symptoms

only patient sees

etiology

cause or origin of a disease

diagnosis

cause and nature

prognosis

prediction of the course and its probable outcome

idiopathic

cause is unkown

adhesion

abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated

analyte

substance analyzed or tested

contrast medium

substance injected into the body

dehiscence

bursting open of a wound

febrile

feverish

inflammation

body defense against injury, infection, or allergy

morbid

diseased

nuclear medicine

radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research

radionuclides

substances that emit radiation spontaneously

scan

a computerized image

sepsis

pathological state

suppurative

producing generation of pus

endoscopy

visual exam of a body cavity of canal using specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope

laparoscopy

visual exam of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall

thoracoscopy

exam of the lungs, pleura, and pleural state with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs

complete blood count

common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets ; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; sorts white blood cells into five sub types with their percentages

urinalysis

common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine

computed tomography

rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles

Doppler

ultrasound used to to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells

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