Medical Terminology - Chapter 18

225 terms by redskiesatnight 

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Adenectomy

Removal of a gland.

Adrenalectomy

Removal of an adrenal gland.

Adrenocorticotropic

Secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH.

Aldosterone

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance.

Antidiuretic hormone

Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption by the kidney.

Catecholamines

Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine (adrenaline) is an example.

Corticosteroid

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol and aldosterone are examples.

Cortisol

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar.

Electrolyte

Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-).

Endocrinologist

Medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders.

Epinephrine

Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.

Estradiol

Estrogen secreted by the ovaries.

Estrogen

Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females.

Estrogenic

Pertaining to the producing of female characteristics or having the same effect as estrogen.

Euthyroid

Normal functioning of the thyroid gland.

Fasting blood sugar

Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours. This test can diagnose diabetes mellitus.

Follicle-stimulating

Secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland;

hormone

stimulates ovarian follicles to produce egg cells.

Glucagon

Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose.

Glucocorticoid

Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar.

Glycogen

Animal starch; glycogen is broken down (glycogenolysis) to produce sugar (glucose).

Glycosuria

Sugar in urine.

Gonadotropin

Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes.

Growth hormone

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; somatotropin. It stimulates the growth of bones and soft tissues.

Homeostasis

Tendency in an organism to return to a state of constancy and stability.

Hormonal

Pertaining to a hormone.

Hormone

Chemical secreted by an endocrine gland.

Hypercalcemia

High levels of calcium in the bloodstream; often due to hyperparathyroidism.

Hypercalciuria

High levels of calcium in urine.

Hyperthyroidism

Increased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.

Hypocalcemia

Low levels of calcium in the blood.

Hypoglycemia

Low levels of sugar in the blood.

Hypogonadism

Deficient functioning of the gonads (ovaries or testes).

Hypoinsulinism

Deficient production of insulin (pancreatic hormone).

Hypophysectomy

Removal of the pituitary gland.

Hypophysis

Pituitary gland.

Hypopituitarism

Deficient secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Hypothalamus

Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.

Insulin

Hormone secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps sugar leave the blood and enter cells.

Luteinizing hormone

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulation) and produce hormones.

Mineralocorticoid

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.

Neurohypophysis

Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; secretes oxytocin and vasopressin.

Norepinephrine

Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure as part of the fight or flight reaction. It is a sympathomimetic.

Oxytocin

Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.

Pancreas

Endocrine (islet cells) and exocrine (enzyme producing cells) gland behind the stomach.

Parathormone

Secreted by the parathyroid glands; regulates calcium in the blood.

Parathyroidectomy

Removal of parathyroid glands.

Pineal gland

Small endocrine gland in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin.

Pituitary gland

Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; anterior and posterior lobes secrete hormones.

Progesterone

Hormone secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.

Prolactin

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.

Receptor

Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue.

Sella turcica

Cavity in the base of the skull; contains the pituitary gland.

Somatotropin

Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.

Steroid

Complex substance related to fat (sterols; many hormones are steroids (estrogens, androgens, cortisol, aldosterone).

Sympathomimetic

Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones.

Target tissue

Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.

Testosterone

Hormone secreted by the testes.

Tetraiodothyronine

Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4).

Thyroiditis

Inflammation of the thyroid gland.

Thyrotropin

Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH.

Triiodothyronine

Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.

Vasopressin

Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water. Also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.

Addison disease

Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol.

Adrenal virilism

Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens.

Cretinism

Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.

Cushing syndrome

Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, excess fat deposition in the body. High levels of exogenous cortisol (cortisone administration) can produce similar results.

Diabetes insipidus

Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); signs are polyuria and polydipsia.

Diabetes mellitus

Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.

Dwarfism

Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.

Endemic goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine in the diet.

Exophthalmos

Protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis); symptom of hyperthyroidism.

Gastroparesis

Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus.

Gigantism

Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.

Glucose tolerance test

Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who has previously ingested glucose.

Goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland.

Graves disease

Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis. This is the most common type o fhyperthyroidism.

Hyperinsulinism

Increased secretion of insulin from the beta islet cells of the pancreas.

Hyperparathyroidism

Increased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.

Hypoparathyroidism

Decreased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.

Hypothyroidism

Decreased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.

Ketoacidosis

High levels of acids (ketones) in the blood; occurring in diabetes mellitus (type 2) when cells burn high levels of fats (producing ketones) because sugar is not available as fuel.

Myxedema

Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland in adults.

Nodular goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to growth of nodules (adenomas) on the thyroid gland.

Panhypopituitarism

Deficiency of all pituitary gland hormones.

Pheochromocytoma

Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; cells stain a dark (phe/o) or dusky color (chrom/o).

Radioactive iodine uptake

Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function.

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH

Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) leading to water retention.

Tetany

Constant muscle contractions; associated with hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism.

Thyroid carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland.

Thyroid function tests

Measurement of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream.

Thyroid scan

Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization of the thyroid gland with a scanning device.

Thyrotoxicosis

Hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).

Secrets Thyroxine

what is the function of the thyroid gland

adenohypophysis

whait is another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

insulin

which hormone is secreated by the pancreas

parathyroid hormone

which hormone regulates calcium in the blood and bones

sodium

what is an example of electrolyte

iodine

what is an element that is present in thyroxine

estrogen

what is the hormone secreted by the ovary and adrenal cortex

secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

describe gonadotropins

gynecomastia

term for excessive development of mammary tissue in a male

potassium

Kal/i is a combining form for which substance

diabetes mellitus

insulin deficiency or resistance leads to hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis

acromegaly

post-puberty hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland

graves disease

exophthalmos is a symptom of which endocrine disorder

sodium

natr/o is a combining form for which substance

type 1 diabetes

little or no insulin produced

secondary complications of diabetes

which of the following is associated with neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy

achondroplasia

defective cartilage formation that affects bone growth

thyroid scan

administrative of radioactive compound and visualization with a scanner to detect tumors or nodules

pancreas

insulin is secreted by which organ

adrenal medulla

epinephrine is secreted by which organ

anterior pituitary gland

follical-stimulating hormone is secreted by which hormone

thyroid gland

thyroxine is secreted by which organ

posterior pituitary gland

vasopressin is secreted by which organ

anterior pituitary gland

growth hormone is secreted by which organ

thyrotoxicosis

abnormal condition (hypersecretion) of the thyroid gland

hyper, pituitary gland

acromegaly is hyper or hypo and secreted by which organ

hypo, thyroid

cretinism is hyper or hypo and secreted by which organ

electrolyte

a mineral salt found in the blood and tissue; potassium is an example

calcitronin

hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; lowers blood calcium

pancreatectomy

resection of a gland near and behind the stomach

oxytocin

hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor

glucosuria

sugar present in the urine

homeostasis

tendency of an organism to maitain a constant internal environment

hyponatremia

blood condition of deficient sodium

glucocorticoids

type of hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; necessary for the use of sugars, fats, and proteins

parathyroidectomy

resection of four small glands in the neck region

hypokalemia

blood condition of deficient potassium

glycemic

condition of sugar in the blood

radio immuno essay

test that measures hormone levels in plasma

glucose tolerance test

test that measures levels of sugar in the blood

thyroscan

radioactive compound is given and localized in the thyroid gland

acromegaly

enlargment of extremities caused by excessive growth hormone after puberty

thyroid carcinoma

malignant tissue of an endocrine gland in the neck

cretinism

extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood produces this condition

myxedema

advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood produces this condition

exophthalmos

enlargment and bulging of the eyeballs caused by hyperthyroidism

hirsutism

excessive hair on the face and body of adult women

pheochromocytoma

benign tumor of the adrenal medulla

diabetes mellitus

lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin to promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells

diabetes insipidus

disease condition due to malfunction of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

diabetes mellitus

disease condition due to malfunction of cells in pancreas

hypokalemia

deficient amount of potassium in the blood

hyponatremia

deficient sodium in the blood

adrenopathy

disease condition of adrenal gland

pancreas

located behind the stomch; alpha beta islet cells secrete hormones

adrenal cortex

outer section of a gland above each kidney; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones

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