Cardiolvascular Part A

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Blood Vessels to Vein journey

Start from base of Heart (Left Ventricle)
Ends at Right Atrium of Heart

Three walls of blood vessel

Tunica Intima (inner)
Tunica Media (middle)
Tunica adventitia (outer)

What does the thickness of a vessels wall indicate?

It depicts the amount of pressure the vessel is designed to withstand.

Tunica Intima

Simple Squamous epithelium
Elastic Layer

Tunica Media

Smooth muscles
Elastic CT
Thickest layer in Arteries

Tunica Adventitia

Thin
CT of elastin and collagen fibers

Tunica Media - Elastic Arteries

closest to the heart
Has more elastic tissue

Tunica Media - muscular arteries

Predominantly smooth muscle with less elastic tissue

Tunica media smooth muscle is innervated by

Sympathetic nervous system

What does the sympathetic stimulation cause in a blood vesssel?

Contractions, known as vasoconstriction
Lack of stimuli from PARA, leads to vasodialation (widening of lumen)

System communication Nervous

Sympathetic

Fight of Flight
-increases heart rate
-breathe faster
-pupils dilate
-slow digestion
-cold, sweaty
-liver releases sugars into blood

Parasympathetic

Rest and Digest
-heart slows
-breathe slows
-blood flow to GI increases
-pupils constrict

Arteries

-Carry blood away from heart
-Elastic to handle high pressure
-Branch into arterioles

Arterioles

-Smaller than arteries
-Composed mostly of smooth muscle
-fewer than 5 layers of sm. muscle
-control blood distribution to various regions of body by contracting and relaxing of their smooth muscle

Capillaries

-Single Layer of squamous epithelial cells
-semipermeable
-lot of cap. in muscle and nervous tissue
- few in cornea & cartiladge
- Form capillary beds.

Capillary beds

Branched networks within tissues and organs

Precapillary Sphincters

-Regulate flow into capillary bed
-solutes cross capillary wall by diffusion
-plasma proteins stay (too big) so they help with osmotic pressure.

Capillaries filtration

The filtration forces the formation of fluid in the interstitial space and results in hydrostatic pressure

Capillaries (2 types)

-Continuous
-Fenestrated

Continuous capillaries

endothelial cells form a complete tube type

Fenestrated Capillaries

Increased pores for
fenestrated, the endothelial cells have large gaps (fenestrae) in them....thereby increasing the 'leakiness' of the capillary

Which arterial wall exhibits greatest variation?

Tunica media

What is the composition of a capillary?

a single layer of squamous epithelium and a basement membrane

Which vessels of the vascular system exhibit valves?

Veins

Venules

(come after capillaries in bed in flow)
-Merge to form veins
-tunica media and adventitia composed of LCT

Veins

-Carry blood towards the heart
-path of veins parrallels that of arteries
-Same 3 layers as arteries (much smaller TUNICA MEDIA)
-possess valves
-blood pressure is lower than in arteries
-blood may pool as reservoir
-tunica adventitia exhibits smooth muscle
-have valves

What is the function of valves in the vascular system?

permit unidirectional flow (prevent backflow)

What is the purpose of having smooth muscle in tunica adventitia in veins?

TO massage blood back to the heart

Circulatory System- Four divisions

-coronary
-pulmonary
-systemic
-portal

Blood distribution

Systemic majority 70%
(Arteries, veins, Capillaries)
Pulmonary 18%
Heart 12%

Coronary Circulation

Right coronary Artery(green)
Left Coronary artery (purple)
-provides oxygenated blood to the heart muscle

Right coronary artery

-marginal artery(yellow)
posterior interventricular artery

Left Coronary Artery

Ciumflex coronary artery (gray)
Anterior interventricular artery (brown)

There are two types of coronary circulations

-On posterior surface of heart
-within the interventricular septum

Posterior surface of the heart....

Between circumflex coronary and Terminal branch of RCorArt

Within interventricular septum...

branch of the anterior
interventricular
and posterior interventricular

Coronary sinus

provides oxygenated blood to the heart muscle

portal: takes venous blood from the digestive tract to the liver for processing 3. pulmonary: 4. systemic:

...

Pulmonary Circulation

oxygenates systemic blood returned to the heart

Pathway of pulmonary circulation

O2 starved bllod from body goes to Right atrium then to right ventricle and out to the lungs

From lungs to heart...

Once oxygenated (the blood) by the lungs, the blood enters the Left Atrium, through the left ventricle and back to the body.

Pulmonary Systemic circuits

Systemic Circulation

delivers oxygenated blood to all of the organs of the body

Portal Circulation

takes venous blood from the digestive tract to the liver for processing

Why is the venous blood from the GI filtered through liver via portal circulatory circuit?

-to remove wastes absorbed by the gut
-store nutrients in liver (glucose, glycogen)

Portal Veins is formed when ....

the 3 veins that drain the intestinal tract join together
-splenic vein
-inferior mesenteric
-superior mesenteric

Where does the portal vein deliver blood to?

It delivers blood to liver for filtration before it is returned to vena cava.

Systemic circulation Arteries

Descending aorta intercostal (thoracic)
Aortic Arch (Heart)
Common iliac (Iliium)
Internal Iliac(Iliium)
External Iliac (Iliium)

Systemic Circulation Veins

-Superior Cava (heart)
- Inferior cava (cardiothoracic)
-Internal Iliac (Iliium)
-External iliac (Iliium)

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