CNA definitions 11-19

141 terms by amberperea

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CNA

Abnormality

Condition different from the normal.

Anatomy

Parts of the body

Anterior

Front

Atrophy

The wasting away of the unused muscle tissues.

Bursa

A pad of cartilage that keeps bones from rubbing together.

Bursitis

Inflammation of the bursa at a joint

Contracture

The permanent shortening of a muscle.

Disc

Cushions of tissue between the bones at a joint.

Dislocation

A change in the normal alignment of bones at a joint.

Fracture

A broken bone.

Multiple Sclerosis

A chronic degenerative disease of the nervous system resulting in the inability to move.

Bladder

Urinary organ which retains urine until it is excreted.

Cystitis

Infection of the .

Excrete

To eliminate or expel from the body, such as waste or harmful material.

Feces (fecal matter)

Solid or semi-solid body waste.

Immobile

Unable to move.

Incontinent

Unable to control functions of bowel or bladder.

Indwelling

Staying inside the body.

Indwelling Catheter

Tube inserted into the bladder to drain the urine.

Kidneys

Two organs in the lower back which filter the blood.

Nephron

A microscopic filtering unit in the kidneys

Nephritis

Infection of kidney.

Nutrients

Substance in food that the body uses to provide energy and build tissue.

Prostate

A small gland that surrounds the urethra in men.

Trauma

A wound or injury.

Ureters

Tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

Urethra

Tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body.

Urine

Fluid waste formed by the kidneys and excreted from the body.

Cyanosis

Bluish color of skin due to lack of oxygen.

Dermis

Inner layer of skin.

Eczema

Dry, reddish, scaly patches on the skin.

Elasticity

Ability to expand and contract.

Epidermis

Outer layer of skin.

Erythema

Redness of skin.

Evaporate

Give off moisture.

Follicle

Tube holding the hair root.

Integumentary

Outer covering; skin, hair, nails.

Lubricate

To oil or grease.

Perspiration

Sweat.

Podiatrist

Foot doctor.

Pressure Sores

Area of the skin that break open due to constant pressure.

Psoriasis

Reddish scaly patches, usually on elbows and knees.

Shingles

Scaly painful patches on the sides, caused by a virus.

Muscular Dystrophy

A progressive crippling disease of the muscle.

Osteoporosis

A condition that causes a decrease in size and strength of the bones.

Paralysis

Loss of voluntary control over a muscle.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Inflammation of the joints, causing limitation of movement.

Sprain

A torn or stretched ligament or tendon

Physiology

How the body work.

Posterior

Back.

Angina

acute paint in the chest from low blood supply to the heart

arrhythmia

Abnormal heart rhythms

arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

arterioles

tiny arteries which carry blood from large arteries to capillaries

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

atrium

upper chamber of the heart

blood pressure

the force of the blood pressing against artery walls

capillaries

small blood vessels which carry nutrients to individual cells

congestive heart failure

gradual loss of the hearts ability to pump blood

heart attack (myocardial infarction)

death of tissue in the heart due to a lack of blood supply

hypertension

high blood pressure

lymph vessels

structures which collect body fluid

lymph nodes

small glands which filter body fluid

pacemaker

initiates and transmits electrical impulse to cause heart to contract

plasma

fluid portion of the blood

platelets

elements of blood which form clot

red blood cells

red colored cells in the blood that carry oxygen

septum

tissue dividing heart in half

stroke (cerebral vascular accident or cva)

sudden stoppage of the blood supply to an area of the brain

varicose vein

weakened swollen vein, usually seen in the legs

veins

blood vessels which carry unoxygenated blood back to the heart

ventricle

lower chamber of the heart

venules

tiny veins which carry blood from capillaries to large veins

white blood cells

the white colored cell in the blood that fight infection

alveoli

tiny air sacs in the lungs

aspiration

inhaling of food, liquid, mucus, or vomitus into air passages

asthma

a disease of the bronchi, causing narrowing air passages and difficulty breathing

bronchi

tubes that connect of the trachea to lungs

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)

a lung condition arising from repeated injury of the tissue, with tissues becoming less elastic and breathing becoming more difficult

cilia

microscopic hair like appendages that sweep foreign matter out of the trachea and bronchi

diaphragm

muscle which separates the chest cavity from the abdomen

emphysema

a condition of the lungs in which bronchioles become plugged with mucus and breathing becomes difficult

epiglottis

tissue that closes during swallowing to cover the top of the trachea

external respiration

the exchange of gases between the body and the outside world

inflamed

red, swollen

internal respiration

the exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body

larynx

voice box

lungs

two organs in the chest cavity responsible for exchanging gases with the blood

metabolism

all physical and chemical processes involved in sustaining life

pneumonia

a disease caused by a virus or bacteria in which the lung tissue is inflamed and the airways fill with fluid

pharynx

throat

pleura

lining of chest cavity

respiratory system

organs involved in the transfer of gases between the body and the environment

respiration

breathing

trachea

windpipe

bifocal

two different prescription in one eyeglass lens

cataract

clouding of the lens of the eye

environment

the world around you

glaucoma

increased pressure in the eye, due to the inability of the fluid in the eye (vitreous humor) to circulate properly

myopia

difficulty seeing things that are far away

peripheral vision

vision seen to the side while looking straight ahead

presbyopia

decrease in the ability of the eye to focus

presbycusis

hearing loss for high pitched sounds

senses

sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch

sensory system

eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin

stimulus

action that causes a response

tinnitus

constant ringing in the ear

anus

the opening of the rectum located between the buttocks

bile

substance manufactured by liver, stored by gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats

bowel

the intestines

colon

the large intestine

defecation

elimination fecal matter through the anus

digest

to break down food substances

duodenum

the first loop of small intestines where most of digestion occurs

enema

insertion of fluid into the rectum and colon

feces (fecal matter)

solid or semi solid body waste

gastric juices

digestive fluids secreted by the stomach

gastrointestinal

referring to the stomach and intestines

glucose

simple sugar to which food in converted

insulin

hormone secreted by pancreas

laxative

a substance that aids defecation

peristalsis

rhythmic contractions of the intestine that help move food along

rectum

the lowest part of the large intestine that connects to the anus

sphincter

muscles that contracts to close a body opening

toxins

waste products released by disease producing organisms

villi

tiny finger like projection in the duodenum which absorbs digested food particles and release them into the bloodstream

aphasia

loss of language or verbal communication

chronic brain syndrome (Alzheimer's type dementia)

large areas of the brain stop functioning, causing memory loss, fear and poor judgment

dementia

mental deterioration, loss of ability to think clearly

equilibrium

balance

hemiplegia

paralysis on one side of the body

hemisphere

half of a round mass of tissue

linear

following in order along a line

neurons

specialized cells of the nervous system

Parkinson's disease

disorder of the nervous system resulting in body stiffness and shakiness

peripheral

away from the center of something

reflex

an automatic response to stimulation

spatial

oriented in space

stroke (cerebral vascular accident )

sudden stoppage of the blood supply to an area of the brain

vertebrae

bones of the spine

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