British nurse whose emphasis on cleanliness and training for nurses revolutionized health care.
Became King of France in 1814; the conservative Congress of Vienna restored him to power. He was the brother of Louis XVI and ruled as a constitutional monarch until his death in 1824.
Count Camillo di Cavour
Prime Minister to Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont. Although he considered himself liberal, he was willing to use deception to promote national goals.
Leader of the WSPU (Women's Social and Political Union), which fought for women's sufferage in Britain.
An austrailian journalist (1860-1904) who called for the creation of a Jewish homeland. This movement, called Zionism, spread throughout Europe and the United States.
Extremely repressive laws adopted in 1819 in Prussia and the German Confederation. The decrees were meant to discourage liberal views and movements.
Enacted in 1815, these laws protetced British agriculture by placing strict limits on the amount of foreign grain to be imported. They resulted in keeping basic food prices artificially high until their repeal in 1846.
This movement, a reaction to the incredible poverty to the industrial era, postulated that workers would live together in a clean, safe environment and work cooperatively. Frenchman Charles Fourier (1768-1837) was the author of this ideal.
He and Karl Marx coauthored The Communist Manifesto (1848), after which they continued to write about the need for work toward socialist changes. Engels was born in Germany in 1820 but lived most of his life in England. He died in 1895.
Inventor of dynamite. He established a fund, in 1901, called the Nobel Prize, which rewared and awknowledged people who worked for literary and scientific achievement and for peace. The prizes are still awarded today.
Great Hunger/Great Famine
Beginning in 1845, a severe blight struck the European potato crop. in Ireland, the results were devastating and millions died, with even more immigrating to Canada and the United States. The event is also so called the Potato Famine.
English scientist who suggested the theories of the survival of the fittest and of evolution. Author of The Origin of the Species.
German philosopher and author. A believer in universal consciousness, he also held that history was a goal-driven process. A part of this was the "dialectic." He lived from 1770-1831.
Most famous for her novel, Frankenstein. Its message was that man should not try and imitate God or challenge nature.
One of the Birtiain's greatest novelists. His wroks often sought to show the suffering of the poor in industrial Britain. his works include Oliver Twist and David Copperfield.
An artistic movement in art, literature, and music popular in the nineteenth century. Mystic, exotic, and foreign topics were popular, as were ancient and medieval history and topics like the glroy of nature.
Was the artistic and literary school emphasizing the dignity of common people, doing common things.
Otto von Bismarck
Master of Realpolitick, was chancellor of Prussia from 1861-71. He was devoted to the Hohenzollerns (Prussian ruling family) and the unification of Germany, which occured in 1871. he continued to serve as Chancellor until he was fired in 1890 by William II.
The Czar liberator who issued a proclamation "freeing" the serfs. However, he was assassinated in 1881.
He became Czar of Russia in 1825 and was immediately faced with the Decembrist Revolt, which he crushed. He was a firm follower of autocracy and stressed conservative policies that forced many of Russia's liberal intellectuals to flee. He died in 1855.
A great leader of Great Britain's Conservative Party, held office of Prime Minister in 1868 and again from 1874-80. He was a strong supporter of Britain's imperilaist ambitions, but also supported a policy of liberal social reforms.
The Peterloo Massacre
In 1819 British troops sought to stop a peaceful meeting in Manchester. Citizens favoring more liberal government policies organized the meeting. Soldiers killed several in the unarmed crowd and hundreds were injured.
Established by the ultra-conservative Austrian chancellor. The system bearing his name sought to restore pre-Napoleonic rulers to theri thrones, restore the European balance of power, and repress liberal and democratic ideas. He was forced to resign in 1848.
After France's defeat in the Franco-Prusian War, the liberal National Guard rebuffed the Third Republic's effort to disarm them and formed an independent Paris, with it's own government. The conservative president of France, Adolph Thiers, sent more troops to capture Paris and a bloodbath ensued. Independent Paris was defeated.
Bismark's political policy of doing whatever is necessary to promote the power of the state.
Was an important British Romantic poet. His works include "She walks in Beauty" and the unfinished "Don Juan." Many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement.
The philosophical belief that the universe is unknowable. Numerous philosophers adopted this thesis, but they each reacted to it in different ways. Those involved in the movement include Soren Kierkegaard (considered the founder) and Jean-Paul Sartre.
19th century school of thought which began in France and held that the scientific method could solve social ills. Leading thinkers were Count Saint-Simon and Auguste Comte
This German philosopher, a believer of Darwinism, founded Monism, which postulates that humans are simply a part of nature. The Riddle of the Universe was published to wide acclaim.
The region north of the Greek peninsula, home to various and frequently violent ethnic groups. WWI began here (Sarajevo) and it was the region of intense ethnic violence in the 1990s. Tension among Slavic people and between Christians and Muslims also have led to war.
One of Britain's great liberal leaders, he favored expanding political rights for British men. He served several times during the mid to late 1800s.
Ludwig von Beethoven
He is most known for his powerful nine symphonies. He also introduced innovations in the type and number of instruments used in performances. (1770-1827)
Artistic style developed in France in the late 1800s that employed light, shadow, color, and varied brush strokes to leave the viewer with a more natural impression. Claude Monet, Mary Cassatt, and Auguste Renoir pioneered the style.
"The Irish Question"
The dispute initiated by Protestant Britain's takeover of Catholic Ireland in the 1700s and Britain's continued control of Northern Ireland has caused tension and violence between the two for centuries.
Fought from 1853-56, this war pitted the Otoman Empire (backed by Britain, France, and Sardinia-Piedmont) against Russia. Russia wanted to extend into Ottoman-held territory, and Britain and France objected. Russia was defeated and all parties suffered significant casualties.
British idealist who believed that the industrial workers and owners needed to work cooperattively in order to create an ideal working and living situation.
Founder of the Arts and Crafts movement. This movement rejected mass production of products and sought to revitalize careful hand production of goods.
In 1814 a coalition of Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria met and agreed to restore the pre-Napoleonic balance of power as well as to restructure boundries.
German philosopher who rejected traditional rational philosophy. He claimed God was dead and that there were "supermen" who would come to govern and run socities over ordinary men. He died in 1889.
An Austrian doctor credited as being the "father" of psychology. He studied and wrote extensively about the importance of dreams and developed psychoanalysis.
A network of secret societies in Italy that developed in the early 19th century to resist Napoleonic rule. Named after the charcoal mark inscribed on the foreheads of new members, the secret society played an important role in the development of Italian nationalism throughout the 19th century and were instrumental in Italian unification.
An epidemic, usually fatal disease that appeared in the 1830s in Europe and Asia, reaching the US in 1849-50. It was caused by a waterborne bacterium that induced violent vomiting and diarrhea and left the skin blue, eyes sunken and dull, and hands and feet ice cold. Advances in sanitation led to its decline toward the end of the 19th century.